e-Clavis: Christian Apocrypha

e-Clavis: Christian Apocrypha is a comprehensive bibliography of Christian Apocrypha research assembled and maintained by members of the North American Society for the Study of Christian Apocryphal Literature (NASSCAL). Entries for each text include a detailed description (a summary, the various titles used in scholarship, clavis numbers, and identification of related literature), an inventory of manuscript sources (with online images where available), an extensive bibliography (including online resources), and information about the text’s use in iconography and popular culture.

One of the primary goals of this resource is to encourage interaction and collaboration among scholars of the Christian Apocrypha. Entries are prepared by scholars working with the texts; users are encouraged to contact the contributors with suggestions for improvement or enhancement. The success of e-Clavis is contingent upon the willingness of users and contributors to exchange information and consistently update the entries.

e-Clavis is looking for volunteers to contribute entries for unassigned texts. Contact members of the editorial board for more information.

Creative Commons LicenseThis work is licensed under a
Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Editorial Board

Senior Editor: Tony Burke (tburke@yorku.ca)

Infancy Materials : Cornelia Horn (cbhorn68@gmail.com) and Brent Landau (bclandau@utexas.edu)

Agrapha and Fragments: vacant

Nag Hammadi Codices and “Gnostic” texts: Bradley Rice (bradley.rice@mail.mcgill.ca)

Passion and Resurrection Texts: Mark Glen Bilby (mgb8n –at– virginia dot edu)

Early Apocryphal Acts: Janet Spittler (jespittler@gmail.com) and Tony Burke (tburke@yorku.ca)

Late Apocryphal Acts: vacant

Pseudo-apostolic Memoirs: vacant

Legends of John the Baptist and Judas : Tony Burke (tburke@yorku.ca)

Legends of Mary, Joseph, and Mary Magdalene: Mark Glen Bilby (mgb8n@virginia.edu)

Epistles: Philip L. Tite (philip.tite@mail.mcgill.ca)

Apocalypses: vacant

e-Clavis: Christian Apocrypha was developed by Mark Glen Bilby, Tony Burke, and Bradley Rice.

Additional Bibliographical Resources

1. Print.

Charlesworth, James H. with James R. Mueller. The New Testament Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha: A Guide to Publications, with Excurses on Apocalypses. American Theological Library Association Bibliography Series 17. Chicago: ATLA; Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1987.
Though now outdated, this expansive bibliography offers entries on early editions and studies, including eastern European works rarely consulted in the West. A shorter version of the bibliography is found in James H. Charlesworth, “Research on the New Testament Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha,” ANRW 25.2:3919-68. Part 2, Principat, 25.2 (edited by H. Temporini and W. Haase; New York: De Gruyter, 1988).

DiTommaso, Lorenzo. Bibliography of Pseudepigrapha Research, 1850–1999. JSPSup (now LSTS) 39. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2001.
Includes entries for Pseudepigrapha featuring Jewish figures and history but composed by Christians.

Elliott, J. Keith, ed. The Apocryphal New Testament: A Collection of Apocryphal Christian Literature in an English Translation. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2005.
First published in 1993. Each of the individual texts is accompanied by an extensive bibliography.

Geerard, Maurice, ed. Clavis apocryphorum Novi Testamenti. Corpus Christianorum. Turnhout: Brepols, 1992.
A guide to manuscript research and editions for various apocryphal Christian works published under the auspices of l’AELAC. A valuable resource for determining the current state of text-critical work on each of the texts.

Scholer, David M. Nag Hammadi Bibliography. 3 vols. NHMS 1, 32, 65. Leiden: Brill, 1971, 1997, 2009.

2. Electronic

Burke, Tony. Christian Apocrypha. Oxford Bibliographies. Membership required to view the complete entry.

Burke, Tony. Apocryphal Acts. Oxford Bibliographies. Membership required to view the complete entry.

Elliott, J. K. Apocryphal Gospels. Oxford Bibliographies. Membership required to view the complete entry.

Murdoch, Brian. Biblical Apocrypha. Oxford Bibliographies. Membership required to view the complete entry.

Wright, Charles D. The Apocrypha in the Middle Ages. Medieval Studies Program, University of Illinois.

Additional Electronic Resources:

Kirby, Peter. Early Christian Writings.

Pitts Theology Library, Emory University. Early Christian Apocrypha.


Abgar Correspondence

Acts and Martyrdom of Bartholomew

Acts and Martyrdom of James, the Brother of the Lord

Acts and Martyrdom of Matthew

Acts and Martyrdom of Matthias

Acts of Andrew

Acts of Andrew and Bartholomew

Acts of Andrew and Matthias

Acts of Andrew and Paul

Acts of Andrew and Philemon

Acts of Barnabas

Acts of Bartholomew

Acts of Bartholomew and Barnabas

Acts of Cornelius

Acts of James, Son of Zebedee

Acts of John (CANT 215)

Acts of John by Pseudo-Prochorus (CANT 218)

Acts of John in the City of Rome (CANT 216)

Acts of Mark

Acts of Matthew and Andrew

Acts of Matthew in Kahenat

Acts of Nereus and Achillius

Acts of Paul/Paul and Thecla

Acts of Paul and Andrew

Acts of Peter

Acts of Peter and Andrew

Acts of Peter and Paul

Acts of Peter and the Twelve Apostles

Acts of Philip

Acts of Philip and Peter

Acts of Pilate

Acts of Simon the Canaanean

Acts of Stephen

Acts of Thaddaeus

Acts of Thomas

(Minor) Acts of Thomas

Acts of Timothy (CANT 295)

Acts of Titus (CANT 298)


1 Apocryphal Apocalypse of John (CANT 331)

2 Apocryphal Apocalypse of John (CANT 332)

3 Apocryphal Apocalypse of John (CANT 279)

4 Apocryphal Apocalypse of John

(Latin) Apocalypse of John

Apocalypse of John Chrysostom

Apocalypse of Paul

Apocalypse of Paul (Coptic) (CANT 323)

Apocalypse of Peter (Greek/Ethiopic) (CANT 317)

Apocalypse of Peter (Coptic) (CANT 324)

Apocalypse of Thomas

Apocalypse of the Virgin (CANT 327-330)

Apocryphon of James

Apocryphon of John

Armenian Infancy Gospel

Arabic Infancy Gospel (CANT 58)

Ascension of Isaiah



Beheading of John the Baptist by Eurippus, the Disciple of John

Berlin-Strassbourg Apocryphon

Book about the Birth of the Savior (Latin Infancy Gospel) (CANT 55)

Book of the Covenant

Book of the Rolls

Book of the Rooster

Book of the Resurrection of Christ by Bartholomew the Apostle

Book of Thomas the Contender

Books of Jeu



3 Corinthians (CANT 211.IV)

Cure of Tiberias (CANT 69)



Dance of the Savior

Death of Judas according to Papias

Death of Pilate (Mors Pilati)

Decapitation of John the Forerunner by Euriptus (CANT 180.2)

Dialogue of the Savior (CANT 25)

Dialogue of John with Jesus

Dialogue between Jesus and Andrew

Dialogue of Jesus with the Devil

Dialogue of the Paralytic with Christ (CANT 85)

Dialogue of Timothy and Aquila

Discourse of the Savior

Discovery of John the Baptist’s Head

Doctrine of Addai

Dormition of the Virgin

Dream of Nero



Encomium on John the Baptist (CANT 185)

Encomium on Mary Magdalene (CANT 73)

Encomium of the Apostles by Severian of Gabala

Epistle of Christ and Abgar

Epistle of Christ from Heaven (CANT 311)

Epistle of James to Quadratus (CANT 308)

Epistle of Lentulus

Epistle of Pelagius

Epistle of Pilate to Claudius

Epistle of Pilate to Tiberius

Epistle of Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite to Timothy (CANT 197)

Epistles of Paul and Seneca (CANT 306)

Epistles of Pilate and Herod

Epistle of Pseudo-Titus

Epistle of Tiberius to Pilate

Epistle to the Alexandrians

Epistle to the Apostles

Epistle to the Laodiceans (CANT 305)

Exhortation of the Apostle Peter



Fayyum Fragment



Gospel and Traditions of Matthias

Gospel of Bartholomew

Gospel of Gamaliel

Gospel of Jesus’ Wife

(Apocryphal) Gospel of John (CANT 44)

Gospel of Judas

Gospel of Mary

Gospel of Nicodemus

Gospel of Peter

Gospel of Philip (CANT 20)

Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew (CANT 51)

Gospel of the Ebionites

Gospel of the Egyptians

Gospel of the Hebrews

Gospel of the Nazarenes

Gospel of the Savior (see Berlin-Strasbourg Apocryphon)

Gospel of Thomas (CANT 19)

Greater Questions of Mary



Handing Over of Pilate (Paradosis Pilati)

History of John (Syriac)

History of Joseph the Carpenter

History of Paul

History of Simon Cephas, the Chief of the Apostles

History of Philip in the City of Carthage (CANT 253)

History of the Holy-rood Tree

History of the Virgin (East Syriac) (CANT 94)

Homily on the Life of Jesus and His Love for the Apostles (CANT 81)

Hospitality of Dysmas (CANT 78.4)

Hospitality and Ointment of the Bandit (CANT 78.2)

Hospitality and Perfume of the Bandit (CANT 78.3)



Infancy Gospel of Thomas (CANT 57)

Invention of John the Baptist’s Head

Investiture of Abbaton (CANT 332)



John and the Robber

John and Cerinthus



Lament of Mary

Legend of Aphroditianus (CANT 55)

Legend of Simon and Theonoae

Legend of the Thirty Silver Pieces

Letter of Luke

Letter of Peter to Philip (CANT 26)

Life and Conduct of the Holy Women Xanthippe, Polyxena, and Rebecca

Life and Martyrdom of John the Baptist (CANT 181)

Life and Miracles of Saint Thecla

Life of Mary (West Syriac)

Life of John the Baptist by Serapion (CANT 183)

Life of Joseph of Arimathea

Life of Judas

Life of Mary (Coptic)

Life of Mary Magdalene

Life of Peter

Life of the Centurion Cornelius

Life of Titus



Martyrdom of Bartholomew

Martyrdom of James, Son of Zebedee

Martyrdom of John by Melito of Laodicea

Martyrdom of Luke

Martyrdom of Mark

Martyrdom of Matthew

Martyrdom of Paul the Apostle and the Discovery of his Severed Head

Martyrdom of Paul by Linus

Martyrdom of Peter and Paul

Martyrdom of Blessed Peter the Apostle (Ps.-Linus)

Martyrdom of Philip

Martyrdom of Simon and Jude

Martyrdom of Stephen

Martyrdom of Thomas

Martyrdom of Timothy

Martyrdom of Zechariah

Miracles of Jesus (CANT 45)

Miracles of Mary

Mysteries of John (CANT 333)


Narrative of Joseph of Arimathea

Nativity of Mary (CANT 54)


On Herod and John the Baptist

On the Funeral of Jesus

On the Priesthood of Jesus (CANT 54)

On the Star by Pseudo-Eusebius of Caesarea


Papyrus Berlin 11710

Papyrus Egerton 2

Papyrus Merton 51

Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 210

Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 840

Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 5072

Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 1224

Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 2949

Papyrus Cairensis 10735

Passion of the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul (Ps.-Marcellus)

Passion of the Apostles Peter and Paul

Pistis Sophia

Prayer of the Apostle Paul

Preaching of Peter (Kerygma Petri)

Preaching of Peter in the City of Rome (CANT 199)

Protevangelium of James (CANT 50)

Pseudo-Clementines (CANT 209)



Questions of Bartholomew



Rebellion of Dimas (CANT 78.2)

Report of Pontius Pilate (Anaphora Pilati)

(First) Revelation of James

(Second) Revelation of James

Revelation of John about Antichrist

Revelation of the Magi

Revelation of Paul (Coptic)

Revelation of Peter (Coptic) (CANT 324)

Revelation of Stephen



Second Discourse of the Great Seth

Secret Gospel of Mark

Sibylline Oracles (CANT 319)



Testament of Our Savior

Tiburtine Sibyl (CANT 320)

Toledot Yeshu



Vengeance of the Savior

Virtutes Iohannis (CANT 219)

Vision of Theophilus (CANT 56)

Voyages of Peter



Wisdom of Jesus Christ