Infancy Gospel of Thomas

Euangelium Thomae de infantia Saluatoris

Other titles: Gospel of Thomas, Childhood of Jesus, Paidika

Standard abbreviation: Inf. Gos. Thom.

Clavis numbers: CANT 57; BHG 779p, 779n, 779pb; BHL 4151n

Category: Infancy Gospels

Related literature: Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew, History of the Virgin (East Syriac), Arabic Infancy Gospel, Life of Mary (West Syriac)

Compiled by: Tony Burke, York University (tburke@yorku.ca)

Citing this resource (using Chicago Manual of Style): Burke, Tony. “Infancy Gospel of Thomas.” e-Clavis: Christian Apocrypha. Accessed DAY MONTH YEAR. http://www.nasscal.com/e-clavis-christian-apocrypha/infancy-gospel-of-thomas/.

Updated October 2016.

1. SUMMARY

In its earliest form, Infancy Thomas contains no attribution; it is simply titled “The Childhood Deeds of Jesus.” It covers activities in Jesus’ life from the ages of five to twelve. The story begins with Jesus playing with other children at a stream. Then follows a series of curses: Jesus makes the arm of one child wither as punishment for disrupting his play, murders another for bumping into him, and blinds some villagers when they criticize him for his misdeeds. These curses lead to the text’s main act: an episode stretching over three chapters (chs. 6–8) in which a teacher named Zacchaeus tries to correct Jesus’ behavior through education. But Jesus outwits the teacher, stupefying him with a speech in which he promises to offer a teaching “that no-one else knows nor is able to teach.” Humbled by Jesus, Zacchaeus delivers a lengthy lamentation, declaring that Jesus is “not of this world.” Appeased, Jesus then restores those he cursed to health. The text continues with a few beneficent miracles—including the resurrection of a dead child and stretching a wooden beam for his father—and two more episodes with teachers, before concluding with a retelling of Luke’s story of the twelve-year-old Jesus in the Temple. Infancy Thomas is most well-known in standard 19-chapter Greek A form of the text. But early translations—in Syriac, Ethiopic, Latin, Irish, and Georgian—reflect a less interpolated form of the text lacking chs. 1, 10, 17, and 18. The text is extant also in Slavonic (a translation from Greek A), and three other Greek forms: Greek S (lacking chs. 17 and 18 and generally closer in form to the early translations), Greek D (which prefaces the text with several stories of the Holy Family’s sojourn in Egypt; available also in a second Latin translation), and Greek B (an abbreviation of Greek D).

Named Characters: Annas (scribe/high priest), James (the Righteous), Jesus Christ, Joseph (of Nazareth), Mary (Virgin), Thomas (apostle), Zacchaeus (rabbi), Zeno.

Places: Bethlehem, Nazareth, Jerusalem, temple (Jerusalem).

2. RESOURCES

2.1 Use in Popular Culture

Rice, Ann. Christ the Lord: Out of Egypt. New York and Toronto: Alfred A. Knopf, 2005. The first installment of a planned trilogy on the life of Jesus follows the Holy Family’s return from Egypt to Nazareth. Several stories of the young Jesus in Egypt are drawn from Infancy Thomas 2-4, 6 and 14. Adapted into film as The Young Messiah (2016, dir. Cyrus Nowrasteh).

bullet-watchMcDonald, Martin, dir. Gospel of Thomas: The Adventures of Little Jesus. 2007. An animated video based on Infancy Thomas 9.

Young, Roger, dir. Jesus. 1999. Culver City, CA: Sony Pictures, 2010. The story of Jesus Animates the Birds (Infancy Thomas ch. 3) is evoked in a scene at 49:05–50:40.

2.2 Documentaries

Burns, Kevin, dir. Bible Secrets Revealed, Episode 4: The Real Jesus. 2013. New York: A & E Home Video, 2014. Segment: ?

bullet-watchJennings, Tom, dir. The Secret Lives of Jesus. Washington, DC: National Geographic Video, 2006. Segment: 13:12–24:17.

bullet-watchMadeja, Geoffrey, dir. Banned from the Bible. The History Channel, Episode 1, 2003. New York: A & E Home Video, 2008. Segment: 45:20–52:36.

Ballantyne, Hugh, dir. Finding Jesus: Faith, Fact, Forgery, Episode 4: The Secret Brother of Jesus. Atlanta, GA: Cable News Network, 2015. Segment: 5:25–6:52.

2.3 Web Sites and Other Online Resources

web-site-bulletEarly Christian Writings: Infancy Gospel of Thomas. Administrator: Peter Kirby (Features several English translations and a brief bibliography).

web-site-bulletInfancy Gospel of Thomas. Administrator: Tony Burke (Features Burke’s “Critical Translation” and English translations of several versions of the text).

Henry, Andrew Mark. “Infancy Gospel of Thomas.” Religion for Breakfast Podcast.

2.4 Art and Iconography

St. Martin’s Church, Zillis, Switzerland: 12th cent. ceiling panel depicting the animation of the birds from Infancy Thomas ch.3. Discussion in Stephen J. Davis, Christ Child: Cultural Memories of a Young Jesus (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2014), 211–20, and depicted on the cover of the softcover edition of J. K. Elliott, The Apocryphal New Testament (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993).

online-bulletAmbrosian Library, L58 sup., a 14/15th cent. Latin manuscript that features a series of canonical and apocryphal stories about Jesus (many drawn from Infancy Thomas), each accompanied by a drawing of the scene. Edition of the MS with images A. della Croce, Canonical Histories and Apocryphal Legends Relating to the New Testament, Represented in Drawings with a Latin Text. A Photo-Lith Reproduction from an Ambrosian MS. Executed for James Gibson-Craig, Esq. (Milan: J. B. Pogliani, 1873). Some images are reproduced in David R. Cartlidge and J. Keith Elliott, Art and the Christian Apocrypha (London and New York: Routledge, 2001).

3. BIBLIOGRAPHY

3.1 Manuscripts and Editions

3.1.1 Greek

Greek S

H     Jerusalem, Bibliotheke tou Patriarchou, Saba 259 (11th cent.)

Greek A

D     Dresden, Sächsische Landesbibliothek, A 187 (16th cent.)

B     Bologna, Biblioteca Universitaria, Univ. 2702 (15th cent.)

M     Samos, Bibliothek Metropoleos, MS gr. 54 (15/16th cent.)

L     Mount Athos, M. Megistes Lavras, Cod. Lavra Θ 222 (15th cent.)

O     Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Phil. gr. 162 (144) (before 1455)

P     Paris, Bibliothèque nationale, A. F. gr. 239 (2908/2279) (1422/1423)

ma-bulletW    Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Cod. hist. gr. 91 (14/15th cent.)

V     Mount Athos, M. Vatopediou, Cod. Vatopedi 37 (14th cent.)

Greek B

S     Mount Sinai, St. Catherine’s Monastery, gr. 453 (14/15th cent.)

C     Mount Sinai, St. Catherine’s Monastery, gr. 532 (15/16th cent.)

Greek D

A     Athens, Ethnike Bibliotheke, Cod. Atheniensia gr. 355 (15th cent.)

T     Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Cod. theol. gr. 123 (13th cent.)

R     Vatican, Biblioteca Apostolica, Pal. gr. 364, fols. 163r–164r  (15th cent.)

Bonaccorsi, P. G. Vangeli apocrifi. Florence: Libreria Editrice Fiorentina, 1948. Edition and translation of Tischendorf’s Greek A, Greek B, and Second Latin texts with Italian translations, pp. 110–51.

Burke, Tony. De infantia Iesu euangelium Thomae graece. CCSA 17. Turnhout: Brepols, 2010. New editions of Greek A, Greek B, and Greek D (with newly published manuscripts) and an additional recension: Greek S.

Chartrand-Burke, Tony. “The Greek Manuscript Tradition of the Infancy Gospel of Thomas.” Apocrypha 14 (2004): 129–51.

Cotelier, Jean Baptiste. SS. Patrum qui temporibus apostolicis floruerunt. 2 vols. 2nd ed. Antwerp: Huguetanorum sumtibus, 1698. First publication of Paris, BnF, anc. fonds, gr. 239; p. 345–46.

Delatte, Armand. “Évangile de l’enfance de Jacques: Manuscrit No. 355 de la Bibliothèque Nationale.” Pages 264–71 in Anecdota Atheniensia, Vol. 1, Textes grecs inédits relatifs à l’histoire des religions. Paris: Edouard Champion, 1927. Edition of Athens, Ethn. Bibli., Cod. Ath. gr. 355 (of the Greek D recension).

De Santos Otero, Aurelio. Los Evangelios Apócrifos. Madrid: Biblioteca de Autores Christianos, 19561, 1979.3 Editions and Spanish translations of Tischendorf’s Greek A, Greek B, and the Egyptian Prologue from Greek D and the Second Latin text, pp. 299–324.

Ehrman, Bart D. and Zlatko Pleše, The Apocryphal Gospels: Texts and Translations. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2011. Edition of Tischendorf’s Greek A text and the Egyptian Prologue from Delatte’s Greek D text, pp. 3–29.

online-bulletFabricius, Johann Albert. Codex Apocryphus Novi Testamenti. 2 vols. Hamburg: Schiller, 1703. Republication of Cotelier’s Paris Ms and Lambeck’s readings of Vienna, Phil. gr. 239; pp. 127–67.

Hock, Ronald F. The Infancy Gospels of James and Thomas. The Scholars Bible 2. Santa Rosa, CA: Polebridge Press, 1995. Edition and English translation primarily based on Tischendorf’s Greek A text with material supplied from Delatte’s Greek D text.

Lambeck, Peter. Commentariorum de augusta bibliotheca caesarea vindobenensi. 8 vols. Vienna: Typis M. Cosmerovii, 1665–1679. The only witness to portions of the lost manuscript Vienna, Nationalbibl., Phil. gr. 239; p. 270–73.

Mingarelli, G. L. “De Apocrypho Thomae Evangelio…epistola.” Pages 73–155 in vol. 12 of Nuova Raccolta d’opuscoli scientifici e filologici. Edited by A. Calogiera. Venice, 1764. First publication of the manuscript Bologna, Bibl. Univ., Univ. 2702.

Michel, Charles. “Évangile de Thomas.” Pages xxiii–xxxii and 161–89 in vol. 1 of Évangiles apocryphes. Edited by Charles Michel and Paul Peeters. Textes et documents pour l’étude historique du Christianisme 13. Paris: Librairie Alphonse Picard & Fils, 1911. Greek text of Tischendorf’s Greek A text and French translation, pp. 161–69.

Schneider, Gerhard. Apokryphe Kindheitsevangelien. New York: Herder, 1995. Edition of Tischendorf’s Greek A text, pp. 148–71.

online-bulletThilo, Ioannis Caroli. Codex Apocryphus Novi Testamenti. Lipsius: Vogel, 1832. Edition based on B, D, O, and P; pp. 277–315.

Tischendorf, Constantin von, ed. Evangelia Apocrypha. Leipzig: Mendelssohn, 1853; 2nd ed. 1876. Edition of Greek A recension based on B, D, O, and P, p. 140–57; edition of Greek B recension based on Mount Sinai, gr. 453, p. 158–63.

Tischendorf, Constantin. “Rechenschaft über meine handschriftlichen Studien auf meiner wissenschaftlichen Reise von 1840 bis 1844.” Pages 45–58 in vol. 114 of Jahrbücher der Literatur. Vienna: Carl Gerold Anzeigeblatt, 1846. First publication of the Greek B manuscript Mount Sinai, gr. 453, p. 51–53.

3.1.2 Latin

First Latin Version

LV     Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vindobonensis 563 (5th cent.)
LM     The pars altera of Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew based on Paris, Bibl. nat., lat. 1652 (15th cent.) and Vat. lat. 4578 (16th cent.); additional MSS listed in Gijsel 1997.

Second Latin Version (LT)

LTa      Rome, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Reginae Sueciae 648 (12/13th cent.)
LTd     Paris, Bibliothèque nationale, lat. 1652 (15th cent.)
LTs     Berne, Burgerbibliothek, 271 (16th cent.)
LTb     Florence, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, Gaddi 208 (14th cent.)

Additional MSS listed in Gijsel 1997.

Q3a5  London, British Library, Harley 3199, fols. 109v–126v (14th cent.)

Bonaccorsi, P. G. Vangeli apocrifi. Florence: Libreria Editrice Fiorentina, 1948. Edition and translation of Tischendorf’s Greek A, Greek B, and Second Latin texts with Italian translations, pp. 110–51.

De Santos Otero, Aurelio. Los Evangelios Apócrifos. Madrid: Biblioteca de Autores Christianos, 19561, 1979.3 Editions and Spanish translations of Tischendorf’s Greek A, Greek B, and the Egyptian Prologue from Greek D and the Second Latin text, pp. 299–324.

Gijsel, Jan. Libri de Navitate Mariae, Vol 1, Pseudo-Matthaei Evangelium Textus et Commentarius. Corpus Christianorum Series Apocryphorum 9. Turnhout: Brepols, 1997. Includes descriptions of Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew MSS containing Infancy Thomas.

Philippart, Guy. “Fragments palimpsestes latins du Vindobonensis 563 (Ve siècle?): Évangile selon S. Matthieu, Évangile de Nicodème, Évangile de l’Enfance selon Thomas.” Analecta Bollandiana 90 (1972): 391–411. Edition of the First Latin text with newly observable readings.

Sinner, J. R. Catalogus Codicum MSS Bibliothecae Bernensis. 3 vols. Berne: ex Officina typographica illustr. Republicae, 1760–1772. First publication of the Second Latin text from Berne, Burgerbibl., 271.

Tischendorf, Constantin von, ed. Evangelia Apocrypha. Leipzig: Mendelssohn, 1853; 2nd ed. 1876. Edition of the Second Latin text based on Vatic. lat. 4578, pp. 164–80; edition of the First Latin text from the Vienna palimpsest, Nationalbibl., lat. 563, pp. xliv–xlvi; edition of the First Latin text incorporated into the Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew, pp. 93–112.

Voicu, Sever J. “La tradition latine des Paidika.” Bulletin de l’AELAC 14 (2004): 13–21. Study and preliminary edition of LM.

3.1.3 Syriac

Syriac A

ma-bulletW     London, British Library, Add. 14484 (6th cent.)

ma-bulletG     Göttingen, Universitätsbibliothek, syr. 10 (5th/6th cent.)

ma-bulletP     Vatican, Biblioteca apostolica, syr. 159 (1622/1623)

ma-bulletM     Edgbaston, University of Birmingham, Mingana Syr. 105 (1832/1833)

Syriac W

See the manuscripts listed under Life of Mary (West Syriac)

Syriac E

See the manuscripts listed under History of the Virgin (East Syriac)

Baars, W. and J. Heldermann. “Neue Materielen zum Text und zur Interpretation des Kindheitsevangeliums des Pseudo-Thomas.” OrChr 77 (1993): 191–226; 78 (1994): 1–32. Includes collation of Göttingen, Universitätsbibl., syr. 10.

online-bulletBudge, E. A. Wallis. The History of the Blessed Virgin Mary and the History of the Likeness of Christ. 2 vols. London: Luzac & Co., 1899. First publication of the East Syriac Life of Mary from two manuscripts, one of which (a now-lost manuscript from Alqoš) contains much of Infancy Thomas; Budge includes also Wright’s manuscript in an appendix.

online-bulletBurke, Tony. “The Infancy Gospel of Thomas from an Unpublished Syriac Manuscript. Introduction, Text, Translation, and Notes.” Hugoye 16.2 (2013): 225–99. Edition of Vatican, syr. 159 collated against previously published manuscripts and an additional manuscript: Mingana Syr. 105.

Meyer, A. “Kindheitserzählung des Thomas.” Pages 93–102 in Neutestamentlichen Apokryphen. Edited by Edgar Hennecke. 2d ed. Tübingen: J. C. B. Mohr, 1924. Includes partial translation of Göttingen, Universitätsbibl., syr. 10.

Peeters, Paul. “Introduction.” Pages i–lix in vol. 2 of Évangiles apocryphes. Edited by Charles Michel and Paul Peeters. Textes et documents pour l’étude historique du Christianisme 18. Paris: Librairie Alphonse Picard & Fils, 1914. Features partial French translation of Vat., syr. 159.

online-bulletWright, William. Contributions to the Apocryphal Literature of the New Testament. London: Williams & Norgate, 1865. First publication of the manuscript London, Brit. Libr., Add. 14484 with English translation, pp. 6–16.

3.1.4 Arabic

Milan, Biblioteca Ambrosiana, G 11 sup, fols. 145r–153v (date undetermined)

B  Cairo, Coptic Museum, 6539(D), fols. 188r–188v (date undetermined)

Oxford, Bodleian Library, Bodl. Or. 350 (date undetermined)

Moraldi, Luigi. “Infanzia di Gesù: ms. arabo G 11 sup. della Biblioteca Ambrosiana.” Rendiconti: Istituto lombardo di sienze e lettere 127.1 (1993): 79–91.

Noja, Sergio. “L’Évangile arabe apocryphe de Thomas, de la ‘Biblioteca Ambrosiana’ de Milan (G 11 sup).” Pages 681–90 in Biblische und Judistische Studien: Festschrift für Paolo Sacchi. Edited by Angelo Vivian. Judentum und Umwelt 29. Paris: Peter Lang, 1990. Edition of the Arabic text from Milan.

Noja, Sergio. “À propos du texte arabe d’un évangile apocryphe de Thomas de la Ambrosiana de Milan.” Pages 335–41 in vol. 1 of YAD-NAMA: im memoria di Alessandro Bausani. Edited by Biancamana Scarcia Amoretti and Lucia Rostagno. 2 vols. Roma: Bardi Editore, 1991. French translation of the Arabic text from Milan.

Sike, Henry. Evangelium Infantiae; vel, Liber Apocryphus de Infantia Salvatoris; ex manuscripto edidit, ac Latina versione et notis illustravit Henricus Sike. Trajecti ad Rhenum: Halman, 1697. first publication of the Arabic Infancy Gospel from Bodleian Library, Bodl. Or. 350; this manuscript contains a number of chapters from Infancy Thomas.

3.1.5 Ethiopic

Paris, Bibliothèque nationale, d’Abbadie 168, 19th cent.

Additional MSS listed in Arras and van Rompay 1975.

Arras, V. and Lucas van Rompay. “Les manuscrits éthiopiens des ‘Miracles de Jesus.’” AnBoll 93 (1975): 133–46.

Grébaut, Sylvain. “Les miracles de Jésus: Texte éthiopien publié et traduit.” PO 12 (1919): 555–652. Edition of the Ethiopic text based on three manuscripts with Bibliothèque Nationale, d’Abbadie 168 as the base text.

3.1.6 Georgian

Tbilisi, National Center of Manuscripts, Cod. A 95, 10th cent.

Garitte, G. “Le fragment géorgien de l’Évangile de Thomas.” RHE 51 (1956): 511–20. Latin translation of the Georgian text.

Kekelidze, Kornelius. Monumenta Hagiographica Georgica, pars prima, Keimena, Vol. 1, Januarium, Februarium, Martium, Aprilem et Majum menses continens (in Georgian). Tiflis, 1918. Modern Georgian translation of Tblisi, Cod. A 95.

Melikset-Bek, Leon. “Fragment grusinskoi versii ‘Djetsiva Hrista’ (A Fragment of the Georgian Version of the ‘Infancy of Christ’).” Hristianskii Vostok 6.3 (1917–1920): 315–20. Russian translation of Tblisi, Cod. A 95.

Shanidze, A. “A Fragment of the Georgian Version of the Apocryphal ‘Gospel of Thomas’ and its Incomprehensible Passages” (in Russian). Stalinis sahelobis T‘ibilisis sah. Universititis Sromebi 18 (1941): 29–40. Definitive edition of the Georgian text.

3.1.7 Slavonic

J     St. Petersburg, Library of the Russian Academy of Sciences, A. I. Jacimirskij Cod. No. 15, 1337–1355

N     Belgrade, Narodna Biblioteka, Sreckovic Cod. 637, mid-14th cent.

X     Moscow, Russian State Historical Museum, Xludov Cod. 162, 14th cent.

C   Zagreb, Archives of the Croatian Academy of Sciences, Fragm. glag. br. 99. “Jedan list malog formata,” 15th cent.

L     Belgrade, Narodna Biblioteka “Kiril i Metodij,” Sodia, Cod. 309 (68), late 16th cent.

S     Moscow, Russian State Library, Cod. 1253, 16th cent.

Ukrainian

I     Kyjiv, Institute of Literature of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, I. Franko Cod. No. 472, 1732

G   Kyjiv, Central Scientific Library of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Codex No. VIII 209 ?/20, 18th cent.

B     Kyjiv, Central Scientific Library of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Codex No. ?. A. 901?, 18th cent.

R     Moscow, Russian State Library Codex No. 1244 (162), 18th cent.

    Kyjiv, Institute of Literature of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, I. Franko Cod. No. 476, 18th cent.

K     Kyjiv State University, Sbornik Vaski Kvasnikova, 18th cent.

Four additional MSS listed in Rosén 1997.

Adrianova, V. P. “The Gospel of Thomas in Ancient Ukrainian Literature” (in Russian). Izvestija Otdelenija Russkogo Jazych i Slovesnosti Imp. Akagemii Nauk 14.2 (1909): 1–47. Editions of G and B and analysis of two now-lost MSS.

De Santos Otero, Aurelio. Die handschriftliche Überlieferung der altslavischen Apokryphen. 2 vols. PTS 20 and 23. Berlin: De Gruyter, 1978 and 1981.

De Santos Otero, Aurelio. Das kirchenslavische Evangelium des Thomas. PTS 6. Berlin: De Gruyter, 1967. Features a retrotranslation of the Slavonic text into Greek.

Franko, I. Apocrypha and Legends (in Russian). 5 vols. L’vov, 1896–1910. Edition based on I and F.

Grabar, Biserka. “Glagoljski odlomak Pseudo-Tomina Evandelja.” Slovo 18–19 (1969): 213–33. Edition of C.

Jacimirskij, A. I. From Slavic Manuscripts… (in Russian). Moscow, 1899. Edition of J.

Javorskij, Ju. A. “Two Remarkable Carpatho-Russian Miscellanies of the 18th Century” (in Russian). University Tidings 50.1 (1910): 1–36; 50.2:65–95. Editions of K and Petruszewicz, L’viv, Cod. 195.

Novakovic, S. “The Apocrypha of a Serbian-Cyrillic Collection of the Fourteenth Century” (in Serbo-Croatian). Starin 8 (1876): 36–74. Edition of Belgrade, Narodna Biblioteka, Sreckovic Cod. 637 (subsequently destroyed by fire).

Popov, Andrej. An Account of Manuscripts and Catalogue of the Books of the Church Seal of the Library of A. I. Xludov (in Russian). Moscow, 1872. Edition of X.

Rosén, Thomas. The Slavonic Translation of the Apocryphal Infancy Gospel of Thomas. AUUSSU 39. Uppsala: Almqvist & Wiksell International, 1997. Edition, without translation, of the Slavonic tradition drawing on all previously published manuscripts.

Speranskij, Michail N. “Slavic Apocryphal Gospels.” Pages 73–92 and 137–43 in vol. 2 of The Work of the Eighth Archaeological Conference in Moscow, 1890 (in Russian). Moscow, 1895. Edition with collation of Popov’s and Novakovic’s manuscripts against S and R.

Speranskij, M. N. South Russian Texts of the Apocryphal Gospel of Thomas (in Russian). Kiev, 1899. Edition of Public Library of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Cod. No. 577.

3.1.8 Irish

Dublin, National Library of Ireland, MS G 50 (17th cent.)

Carney, James “Two Old Irish Poems.” Eriu 18 (1958): 1–43. First publication of Dublin, Nat. Libr., MS G 50 with English translation.

Carney, James. The Poems of Blathmac, Son of Cu Brettan: Together with the Irish Gospel of Thomas and a Poem on the Virgin Mary. Dublin: Educational Co. of Ireland, 1964. Re-publication of Carney’s 1958 edition with English translation, pp. 89–105.

Herbert, Máire and Martin McNamara. Irish Biblical Apocrypha. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1989. English translation of Carney’s edition, pp. 44–47.

Herbert, Máire and Martin McNamara. “A Versified Narrative of the Childhood Deeds of the Lord Jesus.” Pages 443–83 in Apocrypha Hiberniae, t. 1: Evangelia infantiae, vol. 1. Edited by Martin McNamara et al. CCSA 13. Turnhout: Brepols, 2001. New edition and translation of Carney’s manuscript.

3.2. Concordances and Synopses

Elliott, J.K. A Synopsis of the Apocryphal Nativity and Infancy Narratives. NTTS 34. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2006.

Fuchs, A. and F. Weißengruber. Konkordanz zum Thomasevangelium, Version A und B. SNTU 4. Freistadt: Plöchl, 1978.

Funk, Robert. New Gospel Parallels, Vol. 2, John and the Other Gospels. 2 vols. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1985.

3.3 Modern Translations

3.3.1 English

Cameron, Ron. The Other Gospels: Noncanonical Gospel Texts. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1982. Excerpt of Cullman’s 1963 translation of Tischendorf’s Greek A text, pp. 124–29.

online-bulletCowper, B. Harris. The Apocryphal Gospels and Other Documents Relating to the History of Christ. 4th ed. 1867. London: Frederic Norgate, 1874. Translations of Tischendorf’s Greek A, Greek B, and Second Latin texts, and Wright’s Syriac manuscript; p. 129–69, 448–56.

Cowper, B. Harris, trans. “The Gospel of Thomas.” Pages 253–60 in The Sacred Books and Early Literature of the East, Vol. 14, The Great Rejected Books of the Biblical Apocrypha. Edited by Charles F. Horne. New York/London: Park, Austin & Lipscomb, Inc., 1917. A reprint of Cowper’s translation of Tischendorf’s Greek A text; pp. 253–60.

Ehrman, Bart D. The New Testament and Other Early Christian Writings: A Reader. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Elliott, J. K. The Apocryphal New Testament. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993. Translations of Tischendorf’s Greek A and Greek B texts, and the Egyptian Prologue of the Second Latin text, pp. 68–83.

Finegan, Jack. Hidden Records of the Life of Jesus. Philadelphia: Pilgrim Press, 1969.

online-bulletGiles, J. A. Codex Apocryphus Novi Testamenti: The Uncanonical Gospels and Other Writings. London: D. Nutt, 1852. Translation of Thilo’s Greek text; pp. 48–56.

online-bulletHone, William. The Apocryphal New Testament. 4th ed. 1820. Repr., Philadelphia, Gebbie & Co., 1890. Reprinting of Jeremiah Jones’s translation of Fabricius’s Greek text; pp. 60–62.

James, M. R. The Apocryphal New Testament. 1924. Repr., Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1953.

online-bulletJones, Jeremiah. A New and Full Method of Settling the Canonical Authority of the New Testament. 3 vols. 1726. Repr., Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1827. Translation of Fabricius’s Greek text; vol. 2, pp. 187–91.

Orr, James. New Testament Apocryphal Writings. London: J. M. Dent & Co., 1903. English translation of Tischendorf’s texts, pp. 21–31.

online-bulletWalker, A. Apocryphal Gospels, Acts and Revelations. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1873. Repr. as vol. 16 of The Ante-Nicene Christian Library. Edited by Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson. 24 vols. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1867–1883. Translations of Tischendorf’s Greek A, Greek B, and Second Latin texts, pp. 78–99.

3.3.2 French

online-bulletBrunet, Pierre Gustav. Les évangiles apocryphes: Traduits et annotés d’après l’édition de J. C. Thilo. Paris: Franck, 1848. Translation of Thilo’s Greek text; pp. 139–54.

online-bulletMigne, Jacques-Paul. Dictionnaire des Apocryphes. 2 vols. 1856. Repr., Turnhout: Brepols, 1989, vol. 1, col. 1137–1156.

Voicu, Sever J. “Histoire de l’Enfance de Jésus.” Pages 191–204 in vol. 1 of Écrits apocryphes chrétiens. Edited by François Bovon and Pierre Geoltrain. Paris: Gallimard, 1997–.

online-bulletVoltaire (Simon Bigex.). Collection d’anciens Evangiles, ou monuments du premier siècle du christianisme, extraits de Fabricius, Grabius et autres savants. Amsterdam: M. M. Rey, 1769. Translation of Fabricius’s Greek text; pp. 101–106.

3.3.3 German

Bartholmä, J. G. Die Apogryphen (sic) des neuen Testamentes. Dinkelsbühl, 1832. Translation of Fabricius’s Greek text; pp. 52–54.

Bauer, Johannes Baptist. Die neutestamentlichen Apokryphen. WB 21. Dusseldorf: Patmos Verlag, 1968.

Borberg, Karl Friedrich. Bibliothek der neutestamentlichen Apokryphen, gesammelt, übersetzt, und erläutert. Stuttgart: Literatur-Comptoir, 1841. Translation of Fabricius’s Greek text; pp. 61–84.

Clemens, Richard. Die geheimgehaltenen oder sogenannten Apokryphen Evangelien. Stuttgart: J. Scheible, 1850. Translation of Thilo’s Greek text; pp. 59–88.

Cullmann, Oscar. “Kindheistevangelien.” Pages 272–311 in Neutestamentliche Apokryphen in deutscher Übersetzung, Bd. 1. Evangelien und Verwandtes. Edited by Edgar Hennecke and Wilhelm Schneemelcher. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1959. English translation: “Infancy Gospels.” Pages 363–417 in New Testament Apocrypha, Vol. 1, Gospels and Related Writings. Edited by Edgar Hennecke and Wilhelm Schneemelcher. Translated by R. McL. Wilson. 3rd ed. London: Luttersworth Press, 1963.

Cullmann, Oscar. “Kindheistevangelien.” Pages 330–72 in Neutestamentliche Apokryphen in deutscher Übersetzung, Bd. 1. Evangelien und Verwandtes. Edited by Wilhelm Schneemelcher. 6th ed. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1990. English translation: “Infancy Gospels.” Pages 414–69 in New Testament Apocrypha, Vol. 1, Gospels and Related Writings. Edited by Wilhelm Schneemelcher. Translated by R. McL. Wilson. Rev. ed. Louisville, Ky.: Westminster John Knox, 1991.

online-bulletMeyer, A. “Erzählung des Thomas.” Pages 63–67 in Neutestamentliche Apokryphen in deutscher Übersetzung. Edited by Edgar Hennecke. Tübingen: J. C. B. Mohr, 1904.

online-bulletMeyer, A. “Kindheitserzählung des Thomas.” Pages 132–42 in Handbuch zu Neutestamentlichen apokryphen in deutscher Übersetzung. Edited by Edgar Hennecke. Tübingen: J. C. B. Mohr, 1904.

Meyer, A. “Kindheitserzählung des Thomas.” Pages 93–102 in Neutestamentlichen Apokryphen. Edited by Edgar Hennecke. 2d ed. Tübingen: J. C. B. Mohr, 1924.

Michaelis, Wilhelm. Die Apocryphen Schriften zum Neuen Testament. 2d ed. Sammlung Dietrich 129. Bremen: Carl Schunemann, 1958 (19561). German translation of Tischendorf’s Greek A text, pp. 96–111.

Rebell, Walter. Neutestamentliche Apokryphen und apostolische Väter. Munich: Kaiser, 1992.

Schindler, Alfred. Apokryphen zum Alten und Neuen Testament. Manesse-Bibliothek der Weltliteratur. Zürich: Manesse, 1988. Reproduction of Cullman’s 1959 German translation of Tischendorf’s Greek A text, pp. 439–60.

3.3.4 Italian

Bonaccorsi, P. G. Vangeli apocrifi. Florence: Libreria Editrice Fiorentina, 1948. Editions and Italian translations of Tischendorf’s Greek A, Greek B, and Second Latin texts, pp. 110–51.

Craveri, Marcello. I Vangeli Apocrifi. Torino: Giulio Einardi, 1969. Translation of Tischendorf’s Greek A, Greek B, and Second Latin texts, pp. 29–61.

Erbetta, Mario. Gli apocrifi del Nuovo Testamento. 3 vols. Italy: Marietti, 1975–1981. Translations of Tischendorf’s Greek A, Greek B, and Second Latin texts, vol. 1.2 pp. 78–101.

Moraldi, Luigi. Apocrifi del Nuovo Testamento. 2 vols. Classici delle religioni, Sezione quarta, La religione cattolica 24. Turin: Unione Tipografico-Editrice Torinese, 1971. Translation of Tischendorf’s Greek A, Greek B, and Second Latin texts, and Garitte’s Latin translation of the Georgian text, pp. 29–61.

3.3.5 Spanish

De Santos Otero, Aurelio. Los Evangelios Apócrifos. Madrid: Biblioteca de Autores Christianos, 19561, 1979.3 Editions and Spanish translations of Tischendorf’s Greek A, Greek B, and the Egyptian Prologue from Greek D and the Second Latin text, pp. 299–324.

3.3.6 Dutch

Bakels, H. Nieuw Testamentische Apocriefen. 2 vols. Amsterdam: Gedrukt ter drukkerij van de Wereldbibliothek, 1922–1923.

3.3.7 Polish

Starowieysky, Marka. Apokryfy Nowego Testamentu, Vol 1, Ewangelie apokryficzne. 2 vols. Lublin: Towarzystwo Naukowe Katolickiego Uniwersytetu Lubelskiego, 1980. Translations of Tischendorf’s Greek A, Greek B, and Second Latin texts, pp. 254–76.

3.4 General Works

Aasgaard, Reidar. The Childhood of Jesus: Decoding the Apocryphal Infancy Gospel of Thomas. Eugene, OR: Cascade Books, 2009.

Amann, Émile. “Apocryphes du Nouveau Testament.” Pages 460–533 in vol. 1 of Dictionnaire de la Bible: Supplément. Edited by L. Pirot and A. Robert. Paris: Librairie Letouzey & Ané, 1928–.

Amann, Émile. “Évangiles apocryphes.” Pages 1624–40 in vol. 5.2 of Dictionnaire de théologie catholique. Edited by A. Vacant et al. 15 vols. Paris: Librairie Letouzey et Ané, 1903–1950.

Antonini Placentini. “Itinerarium.” Pages 157–218 in Itinera Hierosolymitana Saeculi III–VIII. Edited by Pavlus Geyer. Corpus scriptorum ecclesiasticorum latinorum 39. 1898. Repr., New York: Johnson Reprint Corporation, 1964.

Arens, Fridericus Julius. De Evangeliorum apocryphorum in canonicis usu historico, critico, exegetico. Göttingen: Typis Dieterichianis, 1835.

Arxangel’skij, A. S. “On South Slavic History…” (in Russian). Izvestija Otdelenija Russkogo Jazych i slovenosti Imp. Akagemii Nauk 4 (1900): 103–10.

Bagatti, Belarmino. “Nota sul Vangelo di Tommaso Israelita.” ED 29 (1976): 482–89.

Bagatti, Belarmino and Florentino García. La Vida de Jesús en los Apócrifos del Nuevo Testamento. Jerusalem: Franciscan Printing Press, 1978.

Bartsch, H.-W. “Kindheitsevangelien.” Columns 1294–95 in vol. 3 of Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart: Handwörterbuch für Theologie und Religionswissenschaft. Edited by Kurt Galling and Hans Freiherr von Campenhausen. 3d ed. Tübingen: J. C. B. Mohr, 1959.

Bauer, Johannes Baptist. “Die Entstehung apokrypher Evangelien.” BiLi 38 (1964): 268–71.

Bauer, Walter. Das Leben Jesu im Zeitalter der neutestamentlichen Apokryphen. Tübingen: J. C. B. Mohr, 1909.

Belser, Johannes Evangelist. Einleitung in das Neue Testament. Frieburg: Herder, 1905.

Bigaré, Christian. “L’achèvement des Écritures.” Pages 181–211 in vol. 5 of Introduction à la Bible. Edited by Pierre Grelot and Christian Bigaré. 5 vols. Tournai: Desclée, 1977.

Bonwetsch, D. “Die christliche vornicänische Literatur in altslavischen Handschriften.” Pages 886–917 in vol. 1.2 of Geschichte der altchristlichen Literatur. Edited by Adolf Harnack. 2 vols. 1893. Repr., Leipzig: Hinrichs, 1958.

Bovon, François. “Évangiles canoniques et évangiles apocryphes: La naissance et l’enfance de Jésus.” BFCL 58 (1980): 19–30.

Burke, Tony. “Completing the Gospel: The Infancy Gospel of Thomas as a Supplement to the Gospel of Luke.” Pages 102–19 in The Reception and Interpretation of the Bible in Late Antiquity. Proceedings of the Montréal Colloquium in Honour of Charles Kannengeiser, 11–13 October 2006. Edited by L. DiTommaso and L. Turcescu. The Bible in Ancient Christianity. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 2008.

Burke, Tony. “Depictions of Children in the Apocryphal Infancy Gospels.” SR 41 (2012):388–400.

Burke, Tony. “The Infancy Gospel of Thomas.” Pages 126–38 in The Non-Canonical Gospels. Edited by P. Foster. London: T & T Clark, 2008.

Burke, Tony. “‘Social Viewing’ of Children in the Childhood Stories of Jesus.” Pages 29–43 in Children in Ancient Christianity. Edited by Cornelia B. Horn and Robert R. Phenix. Studies and Texts in Antiquity and Christianity, 58. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2009.

Cassells, J. A. Supernatural Religion: An Inquiry into the Reality of Divine Revelation. 1874. Repr., London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1875.

Cecchelli, Carlo. Mater Christi: La Vita di Maria nella storia nella legenda nella commemorazione Liturgica. 3 vols. Rome: Fr. Ferrari, 1954.

Chartrand-Burke, Tony. “Authorship and Identity in The Infancy Gospel of Thomas.” TJT 14.1 (1998): 27–43.

Conrady, Ludwig. Die Quelle der kanonischen Kindheitsgeschichte Jesus: Ein wissenschaftlicher Versuch. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1900.

Conrady, Ludwig. “Das Thomasevangelium: Ein wissenschaftlicher kritischer Versuch.” ThStKr 76 (1903): 377–459.

online-bulletCotterill, J. M. Peregrinus Proteus: An Investigation into Certain Relations Subsisting Between De Morte Peregrini, the Two Epistles of Clement to the Corinthians, the Epistle to Diognetus, the Bibliotheca of Photius, and Other Writings. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1879.

Cowper, B. Harris, trans. “The Pilgrimage of Antoninus of Placentia, AD 570.” JSL (1866): 404–22.

Davenport, Guy and Benjamin Urrutia. The Logia of Yeshua. Washington, D.C.: Counterpoint, 1996.

Davis, Stephen J. Christ Child: Cultural Memories of a Young Jesus. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2014.

De Beausobre, Isaac. Histoire critique de manichée et du manichéisme. Amsterdam: J. Frederic Bernard, 1734.

De Boor, Caroli. Die Abfassungszeit der Schriften Tertullians in bisher unbekannten Excerpten aus der kirchengeschichte des Philippus Sidetes. TU 5/2. Leipzig: Hinrichs, 1888

De Jonge, J. “Sonship, Wisdom, Infancy: Luke 2:41–51a.” NTS 24 (1978): 317–54.

Desreumaux, Alain. “Les apocryphes syriaques sur Jésus et sa famille.” In Les apocryphes syriaques. Études syriaques 2. Edited by M. Debie, A. Desreumaux, C. Jullien, and F. Jullien, 51–69. Paris: Geuthner, 2005.

Dobschütz, Ernst von. Review of Gurupujakaumudi: Festgabe, zum 50jährigen Doktorjubiläum A. Weber dargebracht von seinem Freunden und Schülern. Theologische Literaturzeitung 17 (1896): 442–45.

Dobschütz, Ernst von. “Eine Sammelhandschrift des 16. Jahrhunderts: Dresden MS. A 187.” ByzZ 15 (1906): 243–74.

online-bulletDonehoo, James DeQuincey. The Apocryphal and Legendary Life of Christ. 1903. Repr., New York: Hodder & Stoughton, 1911.

Duensing, H. “Mitteilungen 58.” ThLZ 36 (1911): 637.

Dumville, D. N. “Biblical Apocrypha and the Early Irish: A Preliminary Investigation.” Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 73C.8 (1973): 299–338.

Eastman, Daniel. “Cursing in the Infancy Gospel of Thomas.” VC 69:2 (2015): 186–208.

Ellicott, Charles John. “Apocryphal Gospels.” Pages 153–208 in vol. 2 of Cambridge Essays. 4 vols. London: John W. Parker & Son, 1855–1858.

Elliott, J. K. The Apocryphal Jesus: Legends of the Early Church. Oxford University Press, 1996.

Enslin, Morton S. “Along Highways and Byways.” HTR 44 (1951): 67–92.

Enslin, Morton S. “Apocrypha, NT.” Pages 166–69 in vol. 4 of Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible. Edited by George Arthur Buttrick. 4 vols. New York: Abingdon Press, 1962.

Eysinga, G. A. van den Bergh van. Indische Einflüsse auf evangelische Erzählungen. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1909.

Ferguson, Everret. “Gospel of Thomas (Infancy).” Page 478 in vol. 2 of Encyclopedia of Early Christianity. Edited by Everett Ferguson. 2 vols. 2d ed. New York, London: Garland Publishing, 1997.

Findlay, Adam F. Byways in Early Christian Literature. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1923.

Findlay, Adam F. “Gospels (Apocryphal).” Pages 671–85 in vol. 1 of A Dictionary of Christ and the Gospels. Edited by J. Hastings. 2 vols. Edinburgh: C. Scribner’s Sons, 1906–1908.

Foster, R. J. “The Apocrypha of the Old and New Testaments.” Pages 109–14 in A New Catholic Commentary on Holy Scripture. Edited by R. C. Fuller et al. London: Nelson, 1969.

Frilingos, Chris.“No Child Left behind: Knowledge and Violence in the Infancy Gospel of Thomas.” JECS 17.1 (2009): 27–54.

Fromm, Hans and Klaus Grubmüller. Konrad von Fussesbrunnen, Die Kindheit Jesu, Kritische Ausgabe. Berlin: De Gruyter, 1973.

Gad, Tue. Legenden i dansk middelalder. Copenhagen: Dansk Videnskabs, 1961.

Galbiati, J. Iohannis evangelium apocryphorum arabice. 2 vols. Milan, 1957.

Garbe, Richard. India and Christendom. 1914. Repr., La Salle, Ill.: Open Court, 1959.

Geffcken, J. Christliche Apokryphen. RV 1, 15. Tübingen: H. Laupir, 1908.

Georgi, Antonio Agostino. Alphabetum Thibetanum. 1762. Repr., Köln: Editiones Una Voce, 1987.

Gero, Stephen. “Apocryphal Gospels: A Survey of Textual and Literary Problems.” ANRW 25.2:3978–84. Part 2, Principat 25.2. Edited by H. Temporini and W. Haase. New York: De Gruyter, 1988.

Gero, Stephen. “The Infancy Gospel of Thomas: A Study of the Textual and Literary Problems.” NovT 13 (1971): 46–80.

Gero, Stephen. “The Ta’amra ’Iyasus: A Study of Textual and Source-Critical Problems.” Pages 165–70 in Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference of Ethiopian Studies. Edited by T. Beyene. Addis Ababa: Institute of Ethiopian Studies, Addis Ababa University, 1988.

Grébaut, Sylvain. “Aperçu sur les miracles de N. S.” ROC (2ème série) 16 (1911): 255–65, 356–67.

Grohmann, Adolf. “Reste einer neuen Rezension der Kindheitsgeschichte Jesu in der Ta’amra ’Iyasus.” WZKM 28 (1914): 1–15.

Guerrier, Louis and Sylvain Grébaut. “Le Testament en Galilée de Notre-Seigneur Jésus-Christ.” PO 9 (1913): 141–236.

Haase, Felix. Literarische Untersuchungen zur orientalisch-apokryphen Evangelien-literatur. Leipzig: Hinrichs, 1913.

Hahn, Ferdinand. Christologische Hoheitstitel: Ihre Geschichte im frühen Christentum. FRLANT 83. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1963.

Hammer, Olav. Alternative Christs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014.

Henkey, C. H. “Bible, Apocrypha of the New Testament.” Pages 404–41 in vol. 2 of New Catholic Encyclopedia. Edited by Catholic University of America. 15 vols. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967.

Hervieux, Jacques. Ce que l’évangile ne dit pas. Paris: Librairie Artheme Fayard, 1958. English translation: The New Testament Apocrypha. Translated by Dom Wulstan Hibberd. New York: Hawthorn Books, 1960.

Hoffman, R. Joseph. The Secret Gospels: A Harmony of Apocryphal Jesus Traditions. Amherst: Prometheus Books, 1996.

Hofmann, Rudolph A. “Apokryphen des Neuen Testaments.” Page 657 in vol. 1 of Realencyklopädie für protestantische Theologie und Kirche. Edited by A. Hauck, J. J. Herzog, and H. Caselmann. 24 vols. Leipzig: Hinrichs, 1896–1913.

Hofmann, Rudolph A. Das Leben Jesu nach den Apokryphen im Zusammenhang aus den Quellen erzählt und wissenschaftlich untersucht. Leipzig: Friedrich Voigt, 1851.

Holtzmann, Heinrich J. Lehrbuch der historisch-kritischen Einleitung in das Neue Testament. Freiburg: J. C. B. Mohr, 1892.

Horn, Cornelia B. and Robert R. Phenix. “Apocryphal Gospels in Syriac and Related Texts Offering Traditions about Jesus.” In Jesus in apokryphen Evangelienüberlieferungen. Edited by Jörg Frey and Jens Schröter, 527–55. WUNT 254. Tübingen : Mohr Siebeck, 2010.

James, M. R. “The Gospel of Thomas.” JTS 30 (1928): 51–54.

Jordania, F. D. Opisanie rukopiseii Tiflisskago Cerkovnago Muzeja (Description of the MSS of the Ecclesiastical Museum of Tiflis). Tiflis, 1903.

Khakhanov, A. Ocerki po istorii gruzinskoi slovenosti (Overview of the History of Georgian Literature). Moscow, 1897.

Kozak, Eugen. “Bibliographische Uebersicht der biblisch-apokryphen Literatur bei den Slaven.” Pages 127–58 in vol. 18 of JPTh. Edited by D. Lipsius, D. Pfleiderer, and D. Schrader. Braunschweig: C. A. Schwetschke & Sohn, 1892.

Krastev, G. “The Place of Jesus’ Childhood in Early Christian Tradition and the Apocryphal Literature of Medieval Bulgaria” (in Bulgarian). Palaeobulgarica 15.3 (1991): 91–101.

Kuhn, Ernst. “Buddhistisches in den apokryphen Evangelien.” Pages 116–19 in Gurupujakaumudi: Festgabe, zum 50jährigen Doktorjubiläum A. Weber dargebracht von seinem Freunden und Schülern. Leipzig: Otto Harassowitz, 1896.

Kuhn, K. H. “A Coptic Jeremiah Apocryphon.” Le Muséon 83 (1970): 95–135, 291–350.

Lardner, Nathaniel. Credibility of the Gospel History. Repr. in vol. 1–4 of The Works of Nathaniel Lardner. London: Joseph Ogle Robinson, 42, Poultry, 1829.

Läpple, Alfred. Außerbiblische Jesusgeschichten: Ein Plädoyer für die Apokryphen. Munich: Don Bosco Verlag, 1983.

Lavrov, P. A. “Apocryphal Texts” (in Russian). Sbornik otdelenija russkago jazyka i slovenosti Imperstorskoj Akademii Nauk 67 (1899): 111–18.

Leroy, L. and P. Dib. “Un apocryphe carchouni sur la captivité de babylone.” ROC 15 (1910): 398–409; 16 (1911): 128–53.

Lipsius, Richard Adelbert. “Gospels Apocryphal.” Pages 700–17 in vol. 2 of Dictionary of Christian Biography. Edited by William Smith and Henry Wace. 4 vols. London: John Murray, 1880–1900.

Litwa, David. Iesus Deus: The Depiction of Jesus as Mediterranean God. Minneapolis: Fortress, 2014.

Löfgren, Oscar. “Fakta och dokument angående det apokryfiska Johannesvangeliet.” Svensk exegetisk arsbok 7 (1942): 30.

Lowe, Malcolm. “IOUDAIOI of the Apocrypha: A Fresh Approach to the Gospels of James, Pseudo-Thomas, Peter and Nicodemus.” NovT 23.1 (1981): 56–90.

Lüdtke, W. “Die slavischen Texte des Thomas-Evangeliums.” BNGJ 6 (1927): 490–508.

Lührmann, D. “Biographie des Gerechten als Evangelium.” WD (1977): 23–50.

Lunt, Horace G. “On the Apocryphal Gospel of Thomas.” Pages 99–105 in Proceedings of the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts. Edited by Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts. Skopje: Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, 1970.

Marsh-Edwards, J. C. “Our Debt to the Apocryphal Infancy Gospels.” IER 105 (1966): 365–71.

Masser, Achim. Bibel, Apokryphen und Legenden: Geburt und Kindheit Jesu in der religiösen Epik des deutschen Mittelaters. Berlin: Erich Schmidt, 1969.

Massuet, Domni Renati. Detectionis et eversiones: falso cognominate agnitionis;… Paris: Typis & Sumptibus Joannis Baptiste Coïgnard, 1710.

McNamara, Martin.“Apocryphal Infancy Narratives: European and Irish Transmission.” Pages 123–46 in Ireland and Europe in the Early Middle Ages: Texts and Translations. Edited by P. Ní Chatháin and M. Richter. Cornwall 2001.

McNamara, Martin. “New Testament Apocrypha in the Irish Church.” Pages 333–40 in vol. 6 of Studia Evangelica. Edited by Elizabeth A. Livingstone. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1973.

McNamara, Martin. “Notes on the Irish Gospel of Thomas.” ITQ 38 (1971): 42–66.

McNeil, Brian. “Jesus and the Alphabet.” JTS 27 (1976): 126–28.

Mimouni, Simon Claude. “Vies de la Vierge. État de la question.” Apocrypha 5 (1994): 211–48.

Mirecki, Paul Allan. “The Infancy Gospel of Thomas.” Pages 191–201 in vol. 1 of A Teacher of the True Faith. Edited by W. R. Brookman and E. R. Freeman. Minneapolis, 1983.

Mirecki, Paul Allan. “Thomas, Infancy Gospel of.” Pages 540–44 in vol. 6 of Anchor Bible Dictionary. Edited by David Noel Freedman. 6 vols. New York: Doubleday, 1992.

Moehler, J. A. La patrologie. 2 vols. Translated by Jean Cohen. Paris: Debécourt, 1843.

Moffatt, James. “Gospels (Uncanonical).” Pages 485–88 of vol. 1 of Dictionary of the Apostolic Church. Edited by J. Hastings, J. A. Selbie, and J. C. Lambert. 2 vols. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1915–1918.

Moraldi, Luigi. Nascita e infanzia di Gesù nei più antichi codici christiani. Milan: Jacabook, 1989.

Moraldi, Luigi. Vangelo arabo apocrifo dell’apostolo Giovanni da un Manoscritto della Biblioteca Ambrosiana. Milan: Jacabook, 1991.

Movers, F. K. “Apokryphe (écrit).” Pages 409–41 in vol. 1 of Dictionnaire encyclopédique de la théologie catholique. Edited by Heinrich J. Wetzer. 26 vols. 3d ed. Paris: Gaume frères, 1868–1869.

Movers, F. K. and F. Kaulen. “Apokryphen und Apokryphen-Literatur.” Pages 1036–84 in vol. 1 of Wetzer und Welte’s Kirchenlexicon oder Encyklopädie der katholischen Theologie und ihrer Hülfswissenschaften. Edited by Heinrich J. Wetzer. 12 vols. 2d ed. Freiburg: Herder, 1882–1891.

Naffah, Charles. “Les ‘histoires’ syriaques de la Vierge: traditions apocryphes anciennes et récentes.” Apocrypha 20 (2009): 137–88.

Neusner, Jacob. “Zacchaeus/Zakkai.” HTR 57 (1964): 57–59.

online-bulletNicolas, Michel. Études sur les évangiles apocryphes. Paris: Michel Lévy Frères, 1866.

Niztsch, Carolus Immanuel. De apocryphorum evangeliorum in explicandis canonicis usu et abusu. Vitebergae: Fribericus Immanuel Seibt, 1808.

Norelli, Enrico. “Gesù ride: Gesù, il maestro di scuola e i passeri. Le sorprese di un testo apocrifo trascurato.” Pages 653–84 in Mysterium regni ministerium verbi (Mc 4,11; At 6,4). Scritti in onore di mons. Vittorio Fusco. Edited by E. Franco. Supplementi alla Rivista Biblica 38. Bologna 2001.

Noret, Jacques. “Pour une édition de l’Évangile de l’enfance selon Thomas.” AnBoll 90 (1972): 412.

Norton, Andrews. The Evidences of the Genuineness of the Gospels. 9th abridged ed. 1848. Boston: American Unitarian Association, 1890.

Paulissen, Lucie. “Jésus á l’ école. L’enseignement dans l’ Évangile de l’Enfance selon Thomas.” Apocrypha 14 (2003): 153–75.

Peeters, Paul. “Introduction.” Pages i–lix in vol. 2 of Évangiles apocryphes. Edited by Charles Michel and Paul Peeters. Textes et documents pour l’étude historique du Christianisme 18. Paris: Librairie Alphonse Picard & Fils, 1914.

online-bulletPick, Bernhard. The Extra-Canonical Life of Christ, Being a Record of the Acts and Sayings of Jesus of Nazareth Drawn from Uninspired Sources. New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1903.

Pick, Bernhard. The Life of Jesus according to the Extra-Canonical Sources. New York: John B. Alden, 1887.

Plummer, A. “The Apocryphal Gospels.” ExpTim 34 (1922–1923): 373–376, 473–74.

Pons (de Négrépelisse), Joseph. Recherches sur les apocryphes du Nouveau Testament: Thèse historique et critique. Montauban, 1850.

Prieur, J.-M. “Les évangiles apocryphes.” PosLuth 114 (1976): 74–95.

Provera, M. E. Il Vangelo arabo dell’infanzia secondo il Ms. Laurenziano orientale (n. 387). Jerusalem, 1973.

Quasten, J. Patrology. 3 vols. Utrecht-Brussels: Spectrum, 1950–1960.

Rappoport, Angelo Solomon. Mediaeval Legends of Christ. London: Ivor Nicholson & Watson Ltd., 1934.

Reid, George J. “Apocrypha.” Pages 601–15 in vol. 1 of Catholic Encyclopedia. Edited by Charles G. Herbermann et al. 16 vols. New York: The Universal Knowledge Foundation, Inc., 1913–1914.

Reinsch, R. Die Pseudo-Evangelien von Jesu und Maria’s Kindheit in der romanischen und germanischen Literatur. Halle, 1879.

Rompay, Lucas van. “De ethiopische versie van het Kindsheidsevangelie volgens Thomas de Israëliet.” Pages 119–32 in Enfant dans les civilisations orientales. Edited by A. Théodoridès, P. Naster, and J. Riesl. Leuven: Editions Peeters, 1980.

Rosenkranz, G. “Buddhismus und Christentum, geschichtlich.” Columns 1484–85 in vol. 1 of Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart: Handwörterbuch für Theologie und Religionswissenschaft. Edited by Ernst Kutsch. 7 vols. 3d ed. Tübingen: J. C. B. Mohr, 1957–1965.

Saintyves, P. “De la nature des évangiles apocryphes et de leur valeur hagiographique.” RHR (1932): 435–57.

Schmal, G. “Lk 2, 41–52 und die Kindheitserzählung des Thomas 19, 1–5: Ein Vergleich.” BibLeb 15 (1974): 249–58.

Schmidt, Karl Ludwig. Kanonische und apokryphe Evangelien und Apostelgeschichten. AThANT 5. Basel: Heinrich Majer, 1944.

Schonfield, Hugh J. Readings from the Apocryphal Gospels. London: Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1940.

Siegmund, P. Albert. Die Überlieferung der griechischen christlichen Literatur in der lateinischen Kirche bis zum zwölften Jahrhundert. Munich: Filser-Verlag, 1949.

Siker, Jeffrey S. Jesus, Sin, and Perfection in Early Christianity. Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press, 2015.

Simon, Richard. Nouvelles observations sur le texte et les versions du Nouveau Testament. 1695. Repr., Frankfurt am Main: Minerva, 1973.

Stegmüller, Fridericus. Repertorium biblicum Medii Aevi. 11 vols. Madrid, 1950–1961.

Stewart, Eric. “Sending a boy to do a man’s job: Hegemonic masculinity and the ‘boy’ Jesus in the Infancy Gospel of Thomas.” HTS 71 (2015): 1-9.

Stowe, C. E. “The Four Gospels: State of the Question in 1851.” JSL Jan. (1866): 283–314.

online-bulletStowe, C. E. Origin and History of the Books of the Bible, Both the Canonical and the Apocryphal. Hartford, Conn.: Hartford Publishing Company, 1868.

Stuiber, Alfred. “Die Christlichen Apokryphen Schriften.” Pages 117–44 in Patrologie. Edited by Bertrold Altaner and Alfred Stuiber. 7th ed. Freiburg: Herder, 1966.

Tappehorn, Anton. Ausserbiblische Nachrichten oder die Apokryphen über die Geburt, Kindheit und das Lebensende Jesu und Mariä. Münster: Ferdinand Schöningh, 1885.

Tasker, J. G. “Apocryphal Gospels.” Pages 420–38 in vol. 5 of Dictionary of the Bible. Edited by James Hastings. 5 vols. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1901–1904.

Tayec‘i, E. Ankanon girk‘ nor ktakaranac‘ (Libri spurii Noui Testamenti). 2 vols. Venetiis, 1898.

online-bulletTaylor, Charles. The Oxyrynchus Logia and the Apocryphal Gospels. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1899.

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