Apocalypse of Peter

Apocalypsis Petri

Other titles: Revelation of Peter

Standard abbreviation: Apoc. Pet.

Clavis numbers: CANT 317; BHG 1487; BHG 1487b

Category: Apocalypses

Related literature: 1. Apocryphal Apocalypses: Coptic Apocalypse of Peter, Apocalypse of Paul, Apocalypse of the Virgin, Acts of Thomas; 2. Petrine Literature: 2 Peter, Gospel of Peter, Acts of Peter, Acts of Peter and the Twelve Apostles, Coptic Apocalypse of Peter, Pseudo-Clementines, Epistle of Peter to Philip

Compiled by Cambry Pardee, Pepperdine University (cambry.pardee@pepperdine.edu)

Citing this resource (using Chicago Manual of Style):  Pardee, Cambry. “Apocalypse of Peter.” e-Clavis: Christian Apocrypha. Accessed DAY MONTH YEAR. http://nasscal.com/e-clavis-christian-apocrypha/apocalypse-of-peter/.

Posted February 2017.

1. SUMMARY

The Apocalypse of Peter is a Greek composition of the early second century. The text was popular in the East and the West and was considered authoritative by many Christian communities in the third and fourth centuries before it was finally excluded from the canon. The Greek text of Apoc. Pet. is known from three fragmentary Greek manuscripts (A = Akhmîm fragment, late 6th cent.; B = Bodleian fragment, 4th/5th cent.; R = Rainer fragment, 4th/5th cent.), of which A is the longest and was the first to be discovered. Many now accept that B and R belong to the same manuscript. A fuller, and probably older, version of the text is found in two Ethiopic manuscripts (P and T). While Apoc. Pet. has roots in both Western (Greek Orphic) and Eastern (mystery religions) notions of the afterlife, it primarily grows out of the thought world of Jewish apocalyptic. The Greek/Ethiopic Apoc. Pet. is not to be confused with the Coptic Apocalypse of Peter, which was discovered among the texts at Nag Hammadi, or the Arabic Apocalypse of Peter.

In the Greek version of Apoc. Pet., the risen Christ guides Peter in a tour of heaven and hell. In the Ethiopic text, the contents of Apoc. Pet. are cast as Jesus’ prophetic description of future punishment and reward. The Ethiopic text begins on the Mount of Olives, where Christ reveals to Peter that at his coming he will “judge the quick and the dead and recompense every man according to his works.” There follows a vision of hell and the punishments of sinners. Punishments are doled out “in kind”—blasphemers, for instance, are hung over fire by their tongues; female fornicators are hung by their hair and their male companions are strung up by their loins; and murderers are tormented by beasts in the presence of those whose lives they took. Similar punishments are arranged for usurers, child-killers, idolaters, sorcerers, and others. Christ also describes the blessed existence of the righteous, though with little detail.

As dreadful as the description of hell and its punishments are, the intent of Apoc. Pet. does not seem to lie exclusively in Schadenfreude. It must be remembered that in the opening passages of the Ethiopic text Christ and the righteous weep for the afflicted souls of the wicked. Furthermore, in the closing passages, the suffering wicked plea for mercy; an angel replies, “Now do you repent, when it is no longer the time for repentance.” For those in the text, the time of repentance has passed, but for the living wicked, the time for repentance is at hand. Apoc. Pet. is not a celebration of suffering but a warning, a threat, and a call to repentance that might lead to blessedness. Christ himself describes his words as “the source of hope and of life.”

Named characters: Abraham (patriarch), Elijah (prophet), Ezrael (angel), Jesus Christ, Isaac (patriarch), Jacob (patriarch), Moses, Peter (apostle), Satan, Temlakos (angel), Tatirokos (angel), Uriel (angel).

Named places: Field of Akrosja (Acherusia) or Aneslasleja (Elysium), Holy Mountain, Mount of Olives.

2. RESOURCES

2.1 Web Sites

“Apocalypse of Peter (Akhmim).” Early Christian Writings (links to online translations and online and print articles).

“Apocalypse of Peter.” Wikipedia.

2.2 Documentaries

Burns, Kevin, dir. Bible Secrets Revealed, Episode 4: The Real Jesus. 2013. New York: A & E Home Video, 2014. Segment: ?

Remme, Tilman, dir. The Bible Hunters, Episode 2: The Search for Lost Gospels. 2014. BBC2. Segment: 23:30–26:25. (Host Jeff Rose visits Akhmim and discusses  P. Cair. 10759).

Madeja, Geoffrey, dir. Banned from the Bible. The History Channel, Episode 1, 2003. New York: A & E Home Video, 2008. Segment: 1:22–29.

3. BIBLIOGRAPHY

3.1 Manuscripts and Editions

3.1.1 Greek

3.1.1.1 Akhmîm Fragment

Cairo, Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, P. Cair. 10759 (van Haelst no. 617), fol. 7–10 (6th/7th cent.) (BHG 1487)

Bouriant, Urbain. “Fragments du texte grec du livre d’Énoch et de quelques écrits attribués à saint Pierre.” Pages 93–147 in Mémoires publiées par les membres de la mission archéologique française au Caire 9. Paris: Leroux, 1892. (editio princeps)

Dieterich, Albrecht. Nekyia: Beiträge zur Erklärung der neuentdeckten Petrusapokalypse. 2nd ed. Berlin: Teubner, 1913.

von Gebhardt, Oscar. Das Evangelium und die Apokalypse des Petrus. Die neuentdeckten Bruchstücke nach einer Photographie der Handschrift zu Gizeh in Lichtdruck herausgegeben. Leipzig: Hinrichs, 1893. (Facsimile with German translation)

Harnack, Adolf von. Bruchstücke des Evangeliums und der Apokalypse des Petrus. TUGAL 9. Leipzig: Hinrichs, 1893, esp. 16–22, 48–54. (with German translation)

James, M. R. “The Revelation of Peter: A Lecture on the Newly Recovered Fragment.” Pages 37–82 (89–96, text) in The Gospel According to Peter and the Revelation to Peter: Two Lectures on the Newly Recovered Fragments Together with the Greek Texts. Edited by J. A. Robinson and M. R. James. London, 1892.

Klostermann, Erich. Apocrypha I: Reste des Petrusevangeliums, der Petrusapokalypse und des Kerygma Petri. KlT 3. Berlin: de Gruyter, 1933, 8–13.

Kraus, Thomas J., and Tobias Nicklas. Das Petrusevangelium und die Petrusapokalypse: Die griechischen Fragmente mit deutscher und englischer Übersetzung. GCS, Neue Folge 11. Neutestamentliche Apokryphen 1. Berlin: de Gruyter, 2004. (with German and English translation)

Lods, Adolphe. L’Évangile et l’apocalypse de Pierre avec texte grec di livre d’Henoch. Reproduction en héliogravure du manuscrit d’Enoch et des écrits attribués à Saint Pierre. Mémoires publiées par les membres de la mission archéologique française au Caire 9. Paris: Leroux, 1893.

———. Evengelii secundum Petrum et Petri Apocalypseos quae supersunt ad fidem codicis in Aegypto nuper inventi edidit, cum Latina versionae et dissertation critica. Paris: Leroux, 1892, 29–35, 52–59.

van Minnen, Peter. “The Greek Apocalypse of Peter.” Pages 15–39 in The Apocalypse of Peter. Edited by Jan N. Bremmer and István Czachesz. Studies on Early Christian Apocrypha 7. Leuven: Peeters, 2003. (Palaeographical analysis of P. Cairo 10759 with transcriptions and images of the Bodleian and Rainer fragments in an appendix).

Preuschen, Erwin. “Reste der Petrusapokalypse.” Pages 84–88 (text), 188–192 (translation) in Antilegomena: Die Reste der außerkanonischen Evangelien und urchristlichen Überlieferungen. 2nd ed. Giessen: Töpelmann, 1905. (with German translation)

3.1.1.2 Bodleian Fragment

Oxford, Bodleian Library, Gr. th. f. 4 [P] (BHG 1487b) (van Haelst no. 618)

James, M. R. “A New Text of the Apocalypse of Peter.” JTS 12 (1910): 36–54.

———. “A New Text of the Apocalypse of Peter II.” JTS 12 (1911): 362–83. (editio princeps)

———. “A New Text of the Apocalypse of Peter III.” JTS 12 (1911): 573–83.

3.1.1.3 Rainer Fragment

Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, G 39756 (BHG 1487b) (van Haelst no. 619)

Adamik, Tamás. “The Description of Paradise in the Apocalypse of Peter.” Pages 78–90 in The Apocalypse of Peter. Edited by Jan N. Bremmer and István Czachesz. Studies on Early Christian Apocrypha 7. Leuven: Peeters, 2003. (with transcription, English translation, and photo)

James, M. R. “The Rainer Fragment of the Apocalypse of Peter.” JTS 32 (1931): 270–79.

Prümm, K. “De genuino apocalypsis Petri textu, examen testium iam notorum et novi fragmenti Raineriani.” Bib 10 (1929): 62–80.

Wessely, C. “Les plus anciens monuments du Christianisme écrits sur papyrus.” PO 18 (1924): 482–83. (editio princeps)

3.1.2 Ethiopic

P    Paris, Bibliothèque nationale, d’Abbadie 51, fol. 131r–137r (15th/16th cent.)

T    Lake Tana, Ethiopia, Kebran Gabriel Monastery, 35 (18th cent.?)

Buchholz, Dennis D. Your Eyes Will Be Opened: A Study of the Greek (Ethiopic) Apocalypse of Peter. SBLDS 97. Atlanta: Scholars, 1988. (Ethiopic text, Rainer text, and two English translations)

Duensing, H. “Ein Stücke der urchristlichen Petrusapokalypse enthaltender Traktat der äthiopischen pseudoclementinischen Literatur.” ZNW 14 (1913): 65–78.

Grébaut, Sylvain. “Littérature éthiopienne pseudo-Clémentine.” ROC 12 (1907): 139–51. (editio princeps with French translation)

———. “Littérature éthiopienne pseudo-Clémentine. Texte et traduction du traité: ‘La seconde venue du Christ et la résurrection des morts.’” ROC 15 (1910): 198–214, 307–23, 425–39. (editio princeps with French translation)

3.1.3 Slavonic

de Santos Otero, Aurelio. “Apocalypsis Petri.” Pages 212–13 in Die handschriftliche Überlieferung der altslavischen Apokryphen 1. PTS 20. Berlin: de Gruyter, 1978.

3.2.4 Latin

Sallmann, Klaus. Die Literatur des Umbruchs von der römischen zur christlichen Literatur, 117 bis 284 n. Chr. Page 406 in Handbuch der lateinischen Literatur der Antike 4. Munich: Beck, 1997. (pertaining to Latin translations)

3.2 Modern Translations

3.2.1 English

Bauckham, Richard. “Apocalypse de Pierre. Introduction.” Pages 745–74 in Écrits apocryphes chrétiens 1. Edited by F. Bovon and P. Geoltrain. Paris: Gallimard, 1997.

Ehrman, Bart D. After the New Testament: A Reader in Early Christianity. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999, 296–301.

———. Lost Scriptures: Books That Did Not Make It into the New Testament. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003, 280–88.

Elliott, J. K., ed. “The Apocalypse of Peter.” Pages 593–615 in The Apocryphal New Testament: A Collection of Apocryphal Christian Literature in an English Translation. Oxford: Clarendon, 2005.

Gardiner, Eileen, ed. Visions of Heaven and Hell before Dante. New York: Italica, 1989, esp. 1–12.

Maurer, C. and H. Duensing, trans. “Apocalypse of Peter.” Pages 663–83 in Edgar Hennecke. New Testament Apocrypha. Vol. 2: Writings Related to the Apostles, Apocalypses and Related Subjects. Edited by Wilhelm Schneemelcher. Translated by R. McL. Wilson. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1965.

Müller, C. Detlef G. “Apocalypse of Peter.” Pages 620–38 in New Testament Apocrypha. Revised Edition of the Collection Initiated by Edgar Hennecke. Vol. 2: Writings Relating to the Apostles, Apocalypses and Related Subjects. Edited by Wilhelm Schneemelcher. Translated by R. McL. Wilson. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 2003.

Pick, Bernhard. Paralipomena: Remains of Gospels and Sayings of Christ. Chicago: Open Court Publishing Company, 1908, 115–23, 151–52.

Rutherford, A. “The Revelation of Peter.” Pages 41–48 in Ante-Nicene Christian Library: Additional Volume 9. Edited by Allan Menzies. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1897.

James, M. R. The Apocryphal New Testament. Oxford: Clarendon, 1945, 505–24.

3.2.2 Dutch

Klijn A. F. J., ed. Apokriefen van het Nieuwe Testament 2. Kampen, 1984–1985, 205–209.

———. Apocriefe openbaringen, orakels en brieven. Buitenbijbelse aanvullingen op het Nieuwe Testament. Baarn, 2001, 41–56.

3.2.3 French

Amiot, François. “Apocalypse de Pierre.” Pages 287–95 in La Bible Apocryphe 2: Évangiles Apocryphes. Textes pour l’histoire sacrée 5. Paris: Fayard, 1952.

Marrassini, Paulo. “L’Apocalypse de Pierre.” Pages 755–74 in Écrits apocryphes chrétiens 1. Edited by François Bovon, Pierre Géoltrain, and Sever Voicu. Paris: Gallimard, 1997.

3.2.4 German

Bauer, Johannes Baptist. “Die Petrus-Offenbarung.” Pages 102–105 in Die Neutestamentlichen Apokryphen. Die Welt der Bibel 21. Düsseldorf: Patmos, 1968.

Maurer, C., and H. Duensing, trans. “Offenbarung des Petrus.” Pages 468–83 in Neutestamentliche Apokryphen in deutscher Übersetzung. Vol 2: Apostolisches, Apokalypsen und Verwandtes. E. Hennecke. Edited by Wilhelm Schneemelcher. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1964.

Michaelis, W. “Petrus-Offenbarung.” Pages 469–81 in Die Apokryphen Schriften zum Neuen Testament, übersetzt und erklärt. Bremen: Schunemann, 1956.

Weinel, H. “Die Offenbarung des Petrus.” Pages 285–90 in Handbuch zu den Neutestamentlichen Apokryphen. Edited by E. Hennecke. Tübingen: Mohr, 1904.

———. “Offenbarung des Petrus.” Pages 314–27 in Neutestamentliche Apokryphen. Edited by E. Hennecke. 2nd ed. Tübingen: Mohr, 1924.

3.2.5 Italian

Erbetta, M. Gli Apocrifi del Nuovo Testamento 3. Lettere e Apocalissi. Torino: Marietti, 1998.

Marrassini, P. “L’Apocalisse di Pietro.” Pages 171–232 in Etiopia e oltre. Edited by Y. Beyene et al. Naples, 1994. (with the Ethiopic text)

Moraldi, L. “Apocalisse di Pietro.” Pages 1803–54 in Apocrifi del Nuovo Testamento 2.

3.2.6 Polish

Starowieyski, Marek, ed. Apokryfy Nowego Testamentu 3. Cracow: Poznán, 2000, 225–41.

3.3 General Works

Amann, É. “L’Apocalyse [sic.] de Pierre.” Dictionnaire de la Bible, Supplément 1 (1928): 525–27.

Aubineau, Michel. “Le thème du ‘bourbier’ dans la Littérature grecque profane et chrétienne.RSR 33 (1959): 185–214.

Baljon, J. M. S. Het evangelie en de openbaring van Petrus, Textuigaaf. Utrecht, 1896.

Baljon, J. M. S. “De Openbarung van Petrus.” ThSt 12 (1984): 35–48.

Bardenhewer, Otto. “Die Petrusapokalypse.” Pages 610–15 in Geschichte der altkirchlichen Literatur 1. 2nd ed. Freiburg im Breisgau: Herder, 1913.

Bauckham, Richard. “2 Peter and the Apocalypse of Peter.” Pages 290–303 in The Fate of the Dead: Studies on the Jewish and Christian Apocalypses. NovTSup 93. Leiden: Brill, 1998.

———. “The Apocalypse of Peter: A Jewish Christian Apocalypse from the Time of Bar Kokhba.” Apocrypha 5 (1994): 7–111. Repr. in The Fate of the Dead, 160–258.

———. “The Apocalypse of Peter: An Account of Research.” ANRW 2.25.6. Berlin: de Gruyter, 1988, 4712–50.

———. “Augustine, The ‘Compassionate’ Christians, and the Apocalypse of Peter.” Pages 149–59 in The Fate of the Dead: Studies on the Jewish and Christian Apocalypses. NovTSup 93. Leiden: Brill, 1998.

———. “The Conflict of Justice and Mercy: Attitudes to the Damned in Apocalyptic Literature.” Apocrypha 1 (1990): 181–196. Repr. in The Fate of the Dead, 132–48.

———. “Early Jewish Visions of Hell.” JTS 41 (1990): 355–85.

———. The Fate of the Dead: Studies on the Jewish and Christian Apocalypses. NovTSup 93. Leiden: Brill, 1998.

———. “Jews and Jewish Christians in the Land of Israel at the Time of the Bar Kochba War, with Special Reference to the Apocalypse of Peter.” Pages 228–38 in Tolerance and Intolerance in Early Judaism and Christianity. Edited by Graham N. Stanton and Guy G. Stroumsa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

———. “The Martyrdom of Enoch and Elijah: Jewish or Christian?” JBL 95 (1976): 447–58.

———. “The Martyrdom of Peter in Early Christian Literature.” ANRW 2.26.1. Berlin: de Gruyter, 1992, 539–95, esp. 570–77.

———. “Other Petrine Pseudepigrapha.” Pages 148–49 in Jude, 2 Peter. WBC 50. Waco, TX: Word Books, 1983.

———. “A Quotation from 4Q Second Ezekiel in the Apocalypse of Peter.” RevQ 59 (1992): 437–46. Repr. in The Fate of the Dead, 259–68.

———. “The Two Fig Tree Parables in the Apocalypse of Peter.” JBL 104 (1985): 269–87.

Baumeister, Theofried. “Die Didache und die Petrusapokalypse.” Pages 248–51 in Die Anfänge der Theologie des Martyriums. Münsterische Beiträge zur Theologie 45. Münster: Aschendorff, 1980.

Becker, Ernest J. A Contribution to the Comparative study of the Medieval Visions of Heaven and Hell. Baltimore: John Murphy Company, 1899, esp. 29–49.

Berger, Klaus. “Unfehlbare Offenbarung: Petrus in der gnostischen und apokalyptischen Offenbarungsliteratur.” Pages 261–326 in Kontinuität und Einheit: Für Franz Mußner. Edited by Paul-Gerhard Müller and Werner Stenger. Freiburg, Herder, 1981.

Bienert, Wolfgang A. “The Picture of the Apostle in Early Christianity.” Pages 5–25 in Writings Related to the Apostles, Apocalypses and Related Subjects. Edited by Edgar Hennecke and Wilhelm Schneemelcher. Translated by R. McL. Wilson. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 2003.

Bolyki, János. “False Prophets in the Apocalypse of Peter.” Pages 52–62 in The Apocalypse of Peter. Edited by Jan N. Bremmer and István Czachesz. Studies on Early Christian Apocrypha 7. Leuven: Peeters, 2003.

Bonwetsch, N. “Zur Apokalypse des Petrus.” Theologisches Literaturblatt 33 (1912): 121–23.

Bratke, E. “Handschriftliche Überlieferung und Bruchstücke der arabisch-äthiopischen Petrusapokalypse.” ZWT 36 (1893): 454–93.

Bremmer, Jan N. “The Apocalypse of Peter: Greek or Jewish?” Pages 1–14 in The Apocalypse of Peter. Edited by Jan N. Bremmer and István Czachesz. Studies on Early Christian Apocrypha 7. Leuven: Peeters, 2003.

———. “Bibliography of the Apocalypse of Peter.” Pages 200–203 in The Apocalypse of Peter. Edited by Jan N. Bremmer and István Czachesz. Studies on Early Christian Apocrypha 7. Leuven: Peeters, 2003.

———. “Christian Hell: From the Apocalypse of Peter to the Apocalypse of Paul.” Numen 56 (2009): 298–325.

———. “Orphic, Roman, Jewish, and Christian Tours of Hell: Observations on the Apocalypse of Peter.” Pages 318–21 in Other Worlds and Their Relation to This World: Early Jewish and Ancient Christian Traditions. Edited by Tobias Nicklas, Joseph Verheyden, Erik Eynikel, and Florentino Garcia Martiniz. Supplements to the Journal for the Study of Judaism 143. Leiden: Brill, 2010.

———. The Rise and Fall of the Afterlife: The 1995 Read-Tuckwell Lectures at the University of Bristol. London: Routledge, 2002.

Bremmer, Jan N., and István Czachesz, eds. The Apocalypse of Peter. Studies on Early Christian Apocrypha 7. Leuven: Peeters, 2003.

Burge, S. R. “‘ZR’L, the Angel of Death and the Ethiopic Apocalypse of Peter.” JSP 19 (2010): 217–224.

Burke, Tony. Secret Scriptures Revealed: A New Introduction to the Christian Apocrypha. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2013, esp. 95–99.

Cabrol, F. “La découverte du manuscrit d’Akhmîm: l’Evangile et l’Apocalypse de saint Pierre et le livre du prophète Enoch.” Revue des Facultés catholiques de l’Ouest (1983): 570–590.

Callon, Callie. “Sorcery, Wheels, and Mirror Punishment in the Apocalypse of Peter.” JECS 18 (2010): 29–49.

Chapius, P. “L’Évangile et l’Apocalypse de Pierre.” RTP 26 (1893): 338–55.

Charlesworth, James H. “A History of Pseudepigrapha Research. The Re-emerging Importance of the Pseudepigrapha.” ANRW 2.19.1. Berlin: de Gruyter, 1979, 54–88.

Charlesworth, James H., and James R. Mueller. The New Testament Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha: A Guide to Publications, with excurses on Apocalypses. ATLA Bibliography Series 17.  Metuchen, NJ: American Theological Library Association and Scarecrow Press, 1987, 317–21.

Chiappelli, Alessandro. “Il nuovo frammento dell’Apocalisse di Pietro.” Nuova antologia 3:47 (1893): 112–122.

———. “I frammenti ora scoperti d’un evangelio e d’un’apocalisse di Pietro.” Nuova antologia 3:46 (1893): 212–38.

Collins, Adela Yarbro. “The Early Christian Apocalypses.” Semeia 14 (1979): 61–121, esp. 72–73.

Copeland, Kirsti B. “Sinners and Post-Mortem ‘Baptism’ in the Acherusian Lake.” Pages 91–107 in The Apocalypse of Peter. Edited by Jan N. Bremmer and István Czachesz. Studies on Early Christian Apocrypha 7. Leuven: Peeters, 2003.

Cowley, Roger W. “The Ethiopic Work Which Is Believed to Contain the Material of the Ancient Greek Apocalypse of Peter.” JTS 36 (1985): 151–53.

———. “The Identification of the Ethiopian Octateuch of Clement and Its Relationship to the Other Christian Literature.” Ostkirchliche Studien 27 (1978): 37–45.

Czachesz, István. “The Grotesque Body in the Apocalypse of Peter.” Pages 108–26 in The Apocalypse of Peter. Edited by Jan N. Bremmer and István Czachesz. Studies on Early Christian Apocrypha 7. Leuven: Peeters, 2003.

Davies, John Gordon. He Ascended into Heaven: A Study in the History of Doctrine. London: Lutterworth, 1958.

Dods, Marcus. Forerunners of Dante: An Account of Some of the More Important Visions of the Unseen World, From the Earliest Times. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1903.

Edsman, Carl-Martin. Le Baptême de Feu. Uppsala: Almqvist & Wiksell, 1940, esp. 53–63.

Ehrman, Bart D. Forged: Writing in the Name of God–Why the Bible’s Authors Are Not Who We Think They Are. New York: HarperOne, 2011, 63–65, 274.

———. “Forgeries Involving Debates over the Flesh.” Pages 407–54 (esp. 445–51) in Forgery and Counterforgery: The Use of Literary Deceit in Early Christian Polemics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.

———. Lost Christianities: The Battles for Scripture and the Faiths We Never Knew. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003, 24–27.

Fabricio, Johanne Alberto. “Apocalypsis S. Pietri.” Pages 940–942 in Codex Apocryphus Novi Testamenti 2. Hamburg: Schiller, 1703.

Fiensy, David. “Early Christian Apocalyptic: A Comparison between the New Testament book of Revelation and the Apocryphal Apocalypse of Peter.” Pages 151–70 in Christ’s Victorious Church: Essays on Biblical Ecclesiology and Eschatology in Honor of Tom Friskney. Edited by John Weatherly. Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock, 2001.

Fiensy, David. “Lex Talionis in the Apocalypse of Peter.” HTR 76 (1983): 255–58.

Funk, F. X. “Fragmente des Evangeliums und der Apokalypse des Petrus.TQ 75 (1893): 255–63.

Gaster, M. “Hebrew Visions of Hell and Paradise.” JRAS 25 (1893): 571–611. Repr. in pages 124–64 in Studies and Texts in Folklore, Magic, Medieval Romance, Hebrew Apocrypha and Samaritan Archeology 1. London: Maggs, 1925.

Gilmour, Michael J. “Delighting in the Sufferings of Others: Early Christian Schadenfreude and the Function of the Apocalypse of Peter.” BBR 16 (2006): 129–39.

Goguel, M. “A propos du texte nouveau de l’Apocalypse de Pierre.” RHR 89 (1924): 191–209.

Gray, Patrick. “Abortion, Infanticide, and the Social Rhetoric of the Apocalypse of Peter.” JECS 9 (2001): 313–37.

Hammerschmidt, Ernst. “Das Pseudo-Apostolische Schrifttum in Äthiopischer Überlieferung.” JSS 9 (1964): 114–21.

Harnack, Adolf von. “Bruchstücke des Evangeliums und der Apokalypse des Petrus.” SPAW 44 (1892): 895–903, 949–65. Repr. as pages 83–108 in Kleine Schriften zur alten Kirche: Berliner Akademieschriften 1890–1907. Leipzig: Hinrichs, 1980.

———. “Petrus, Apokalypse.” Pages 30–33 in Geschichte der Altchristliche Literatur bis Eusebius 1: Die Überlieferung und der Bestand und der altchristlichen Literatur bis Eusebius. Leipzig: Hinrichs, 1893.

———. Geschichte der Altchristliche Literatur bis Eusebius 2: Die Chronologie der altchristlichen Literatur bis Eusebius. Leipzig: Hinrichs, 1897.

———. “Die Petrusapokalypse in der abendländischen Kirche.” Pages 71–73 in Eine bisher nicht erkannte Schrift des Papstes Sixtus II. vom Jahre 257/8. Zur Petrusapokalypse Patristisches zu Luc. 16, 19. TUGAL 13. Leipzig: Hinrichs, 1895.

Harris, J. R. “The Odes of Solomon and the Apocalypse of Peter.” ExpT 42 (1930): 21–23.

Headlam, Arthur C. “The Akhmîm Fragments.” The Classical Revue 7 (1893): 458–63.

Helmer, Robert C. “Art Imitating Life: Suffering and Redemption in an Early Christian Apocalypse.” Pages 316–23 in Common Life in the Early Church: Essays Honoring Graydon F. Snyder. Edited by Julian Victor Hills and Richard B. Gardner. Harrisburg, PA: Trinity, 1998.

———. “‘That We May Know and Understand’: Gospel Tradition in the Apocalypse of Peter.” PhD diss., Marquette University, 1998.

Henning, Meghan R. “Eternal Punishment as Paideia: The Ekphrasis of Hell in the Apocalypse of Peter and the Apocalypse of Paul.” BR 58 (2013): 29–48.

Hilgenfeld, Adolphus. Evangeliorum secundum Hebraeos, secundum Petrum, secundum Aegyptios, Matthiae traditionum, Petri et Pauli praedicationis et actuum, Petri apocalypseos, didascaliae apostolorum antiquioris quae supersunt. Second edition. Leipzig: Weigel, 1884, esp. 71–74.

Hills, Julian Victor. “Parables, Pretenders and Prophecies: Translation and Interpretation in the Apocalypse of Peter 2.” RB 98 (1991): 560–73.

Himmelfarb, Martha. Tours of Hell: An Apocalyptic Form in Jewish and Christian Literature. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1983.

Jakab, Attila. “The Reception of the Apocalypse of Peter in Ancient Christianity.” Pages 174–86 in The Apocalypse of Peter. Edited by Jan N. Bremmer and István Czachesz. Studies on Early Christian Apocrypha 7. Leuven: Peeters, 2003.

James, M. R. “Additional Notes on the Apocalypse of Peter.” JTS 12 (1910): 157.

———. “The Recovery of the Apocalypse of Peter.” CQR 80 (1915): 1–36.

Kaufmann, K. M. “Die Paradiesvision der Sog. Petrusapocalypse von Achmim-Panopolis und die urchristlichen Monumente.” Pages 100–12 in Congrès Scientifique des Catholiques 10. Fribourg, 1898.

Kraus, T. J. “Acheron und Elysion: Anmerkungen im Hinblick auf deren Verwendung auch im christlichen Kontext.” Mnemosyne 46 (2003): 145–64.

———. “Die Griechische Petrus-Apokalypse und ihre Relation zu ausgewählten Überlieferungsträgern apokalyptischer Stoffe.” Apocrypha 14 (2003): 73–98.

———. “P.Vindob.G 39756 + Bodl. MS Gr. th. f 4 [P]: Fragmente eines Codex der griechischen Pterus-Apokalypse.” BASP 40 (2003): 45–61.

———. “Zur näheren Bedeutung der ‘Götzen(bilder)’ in der Apokalypse des Petrus.” ASE 24 (2007): 147–76.

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