Secret Gospel of Mark

Euangelium arcanum secundum Marcum

Standard abbreviation: Sec. Mark; Theod. (= the Letter to Theodore)

Other titles: Mystic Gospel of Mark, Longer Gospel of Mark

Clavis number: CANT 15

Category: Agrapha and Fragments

Related literature: the Gospel according to Mark; the Gospel according to John; Clement of Alexandria Stromateis; Quis dives salvetur?

Compiled by: Michael J. Kok, The King’s University (Michael.Kok@kingsu.ca).

Citing this resource (using Chicago Manual of Style): Kok, Michael J. “Secret Gospel of Mark.” e-Clavis: Christian Apocrypha. Accessed DAY MONTH YEAR. http://www.nasscal.com/e-clavis-christian-apocrypha/secret-gospel-of-mark/.

Posted June 2016.

1. SUMMARY

When cataloguing manuscripts in the Mar Saba monastery in 1958, Morton Smith happened upon a letter purportedly from Clement of Alexandria (ca. 150–215 C.E.) copied in eighteenth century Greek handwriting onto the end-papers of Isaac Voss’s seventeenth-century publication Epistulae genuinae S. Ignatii Martyris. In the letter, Clement reassures a Christian recipient named Theodore that many of the rumors he had heard about a more esoteric version of Mark’s Gospel were unfounded. Instead, Clement clarifies that the evangelist Mark composed a Gospel for Christian catechumens in Rome and then expanded on it for advanced Christian mystics in Alexandria (Theod. I.15—II.2). He cites two anecdotes from the latter edition that were inserted into the canonical text of Mark after 10:34 and 10:46a respectively. The first excerpt (II.23—III.11) relays how Jesus resurrected a wealthy young man from the dead and, after lodging at his house for six days, proceeded to teach him on the last night about the “mystery of the kingdom of God” (cf. Mark  4:11). The description of the young man wearing nothing but a linen cloth parallels the attire of a youth in Mark 14:51–52 and has been understood by scholars either as a reference to a baptism ritual or as an indication that the young man renounced all of his possessions apart from his burial shroud. Clement adds that there is nothing in the text that depicts Jesus or the young man as naked (III.13). The second excerpt (III.15–16) simply reports that Jesus did not receive the young man’s sister and mother as well as Salome for reasons that are not disclosed. The problem, according to Clement, is that the reputedly libertine sect founded by Carpocrates interpolated objectionable content into the text and construed the “spiritual Gospel” in a carnal manner (II.3–20). Exegetes debate whether these two episodes reflect apocryphal expansions of Mark’s Gospel, perhaps drawing on the phraseology and themes found in the Synoptic Gospels and on the Johannine account of the resurrection of Lazarus, or were part of Mark’s original text before they were excised from the final canonical version. Some recent scholars even suspect that Smith forged the document and search either for “clues” that Smith intentionally perpetuated an academic hoax or for historical anachronisms within the text, while other scholars have put forward rebuttals in defense of the authenticity of Clement’s letter.

2. RESOURCES

2.1 Use in Popular Culture

See some of the popular articles in the bibliography below.

2.2 Documentaries

Madeja, Geoffrey, dir. Banned from the Bible. The History Channel, Episode 1, 2003. New York: A & E Home Video, 2008.

Wolfe, David W., dir. Jesus: The Evidence, Episode 2. London: Channel 4 (UK), 1984.

2.3 Websites and Other Online Resources

Bernhard, Andrew. Secret Gospel of Mark: Additional Information. (Bernhard provides links to the photographs of the Letter to Theodore and some relevant online articles as well as a bibliography containing the published English translations).

Carlson, Stephen. Hypotyposeis. (Carlson was one of the first of the academic “bibliobloggers” and his blog has a number of early posts revolving around his publication of The Gospel Hoax: Morton Smith’s Invention of Secret Mark, including a series interacting with Scott G. Brown’s article “The Question of Motive in the Case against Morton Smith,” JBL 125 [2006]: 351-383).

Kirby, Peter. Early Christian Writings: Secret Mark. (Kirby’s helpful website covers a range of Christian writings in the first four centuries C.E. and his page on Secret Mark features some English translations, relevant links, and a brief description and bibliography on the text).

Jeffery, Peter. Reactions. (Jeffery’s website includes a page that links to the peer-reviewed book reviews and blog summaries of Peter Jeffery’s The Secret Gospel of Mark Unveiled: Imagined Rituals of Sex, Death, and Madness in a Biblical Forgery and offers rebuttals to some of his critics).

Paananen, Timo. Salainen evankelista/On Clement’s Letter to Theodore and the Longer Gospel of Mark. (Paananen’s blog focuses on the Letter to Theodore and he uploaded his “Master’s Thesis: A Conspiracy of the Secret Evangelist: Recent Debate Concerning Clement of Alexandria’s Letter to Theodore”).

Smith, Ben C. The Secret Gospel of Mark. (Smith provides a translation of the Greek text of the Letter to Theodore and lays out Stephen Carlson’s case that the text is a modern forgery; he also links to a number of online reviews of Carlson’s The Gospel Hoax: Morton Smith’s Invention of Secret Mark).

Viklund, Roger. Jesus Granskad. (Viklund blogs extensively on the Letter to Theodore as one of the well-known defenders of the authenticity of the text and has posts in Swedish and English).

Willker, Wieland. The Secret Gospel of Mark Homepage. (Willker’s excellent website gathered a number of helpful resources, articles, and reviews on the Letter to Theodore, but unfortunately the website now appears to be defunct. Fortunately, his Bible-Links Pages at http://www.willker.de/wie/bibel.html includes four links pertaining to the Secret Gospel of Mark).

3. BIBLIOGRAPHY

3.1 Manuscripts

Mar Saba MS no 65

Smith, Morton. “Ἑλληνικὰ χειρόγραφα ἐν τῇ Μονῇ τοῦ ἁγίου Σάββα.” Translated by Archimandrite Constantine Michaelides. ΝΕΑ ΣΙΟΝ 52 (1960): 110–25, 245–56. (Morton Smith on the manuscripts that he catalogued at the Mar Saba monastery).

3.2 Critical Editions

Smith, Morton. Clement of Alexandria and a Secret Gospel of Mark. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1973.

Treu, Ursula. Clemens Alexandrinus, IV: Register, 1: Zitatenregister, Testimonienregister, Initienregister für die Fragmente, Eigennamenregister. GCS 39.1, xvii–xviii. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1980.

 3.3 General Works

Accorinti, Domenico Accorinti. Review of Morton Smith and Gershom Scholem, Correspondence 1945–1982, by Guy G. Stroumsa, ed. Gnomon 82 (2010): 261–71.

Achtemeier, Paul J. Review of Clement of Alexandria and a Secret Gospel of Mark and The Secret Gospel: The Discovery and Interpretation of the Secret Gospel According to Mark, by Morton Smith. JBL 93 (1974): 625–28.

Akenson, Donald Harman. Saint Saul: A Skeleton Key to the Historical Jesus. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Alexander, Philip S. Review of The Secret Gospel: The Discovery and Interpretation of the Secret Gospel according to Mark, by Morton Smith. Journal of Jewish Studies 27.2 (1976): 217–18.

Anastasopoulou, Venetia. “Can a Document in Itself Reveal a Forgery?” Biblical Archaeology Review Scholar’s Study (posted 22 July 2010). No pages. Online: http://www.bib-arch.org/scholars-study/secret-mark-handwriting-document-reveal-forgery.asp.

———. “Experts Report Handwriting Examination.” Biblical Archaeology Review Scholar’s Study (posted April 2010). Pages 1–39. Online: http://www.bib-arch.org/scholars-study/secret-mark-handwriting-analysis.asp.

Baldovin, John F. “A Lenten Sunday Lectionary in Fourth Century Jerusalem.” Pages 115–22 in Time and Community. Festschrift Thomas Julian Talley. Edited by J. Neil Alexander. Washington, DC: Pastoral Press, 1990.

Bauckham, Richard. “Salome the Sister of Jesus, Salome the Disciple of Jesus, and the Secret Gospel of Mark.” NovT 33 (1991): 245–75.

Baumgarten, Albert I. “Smith, Morton.” Pages 1235–37 in The Eerdmans Dictionary of Early Judaism. Edited by John J. Collins and Daniel C. Harlow. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2010.

Beardsley, William A. Review of The Secret Gospel: The Discovery and Interpretation of the Secret Gospel according to Mark, by Morton Smith. Interpretation 28 (1974): 234–36.

Beskow, Per. Strange Tales about Jesus: A Survey of Unfamiliar Gospels. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1983.

Best, Ernest. “Uncanonical Mark.” JSNT 4 (1979): 69–76.

———. “Uncanonical Mark.” In Disciples and Discipleship: Studies in the Gospel according to Mark, 69–76. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1986.

Bethune, Brian. “Mark’s Secret Gospel: What Does a Contested Text Say About Jesus, Gay Sex and Baptism?” Maclean’s. May 12, 2005.

Black, C. Clifton. Mark: Images of an Apostolic Interpreter. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1994.

Bockmuehl, Markus. Ancient Apocryphal Gospels. Interpretation. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox, 2017.

Brown, Raymond E. “The Relation of ‘The Secret Gospel of Mark’ to the Fourth Gospel.” CBQ 36 (1974): 466–85.

Brown, Scott G. “Mar Saba 65: Twelve Enduring Misconceptions.” Pages 303–30 in Splendide Mendax: Rethinking Fakes and Forgeries in Classical, Late Antique, and Early Christian Literature. Edited by Edmund P. Cueva and Javier Martínez. Groningen: Barkhuis, 2016.

———. “Behind the Seven Veils, I: The Gnostic Life Setting of the Mystic Gospel of Mark”. In Ancient Gospel or Modern Forgery? The Secret Gospel of Mark in Debate. Proceedings from the 2011 York University Christian Apocrypha Symposium. Edited by Tony Burke, 247–283. Eugene, OR: Cascade Books, 2013.

———. “The Mystical Gospel of Mark: Part Two.” The Fourth R 26.1 (2013): 5–7, 18–22, 24.

———. “The Mystical Gospel of Mark: Part One” and “The Mystical Gospel of Mark: Part Two.” The Fourth R 25.6 (2012): 5–10.

———. “The Longer Gospel of Mark and the Synoptic Problem.” Pages 753–81 in New Studies in the Synoptic Problem: Oxford Conference, April 2008: Essays in Honour of Christopher M. Tuckett. Edited by Paul Foster et al. BETL 239. Leuven: Peeters, 2011.

———. “My Thoughts on the Reports by Venetia Anastasopoulou.” Biblical Archaeology Review Scholar’s Study (posted 24 January 2011). No pages. Online: http://www.bib-arch.org/scholars-study/secret-mark-handwriting-response-brown.asp.

———. “The Letter to Theodore: Stephen Carlson’s Case against Clement’s Authorship.” JECS 16 (2008): 535–72.

———.  Review of The Secret Gospel of Mark Unveiled: Imagined Rituals of Sex, Death, and Madness in a Biblical Forgery, by Peter Jeffery. RBL (posted 15 September 2007). Pages 1–47. Online: http://www.bookreviews.org/pdf/5627_5944.pdf.

———. “Factualizing the Folklore: Stephen Carlson’s Case against Morton Smith.” HTR 99 (2006) 291–327.

———. “The Question of Motive in the Case against Morton Smith.” JBL 125 (2006) 351–83.

———. “Reply to Stephen Carlson.” ExpT 117 (2006): 144–49.

———. Mark’s Other Gospel: Rethinking Morton Smith’s Controversial Discovery. ESCJ 15. Waterloo, ON: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2005.

———. “On the Composition History of the Longer (“Secret”) Gospel of Mark.” JBL 122 (2003): 89–110.

———.  “Bethany Beyond the Jordan: John 1:28 and the Longer Gospel of Mark.” Revue Biblique 100 (2003): 497–516.

———. “The More Spiritual Gospel: Markan Literary Techniques in the Longer Gospel of Mark.” PhD diss., University of Toronto, 1999.

Brown, Scott G. and Allan J. Pantuck. “Craig Evans and the Secret Gospel of Mark: Exploring the Grounds for Doubt.” In Ancient Gospel or Modern Forgery? The Secret Gospel of Mark in Debate: Proceedings from the 2011 York University Christian Apocrypha Symposium. Edited by Tony Burke, 101–34. Eugene, Ore.: Cascade Books, 2013.

———. “Stephen Carlson’s Questionable Questioned Document Examination.” Salainan evankelista (posted 14 April 2010). No pages. Online: http://salainenevankelista.blogspot.com/2010/04/stephen-carlsons-questionable.html.

———. “Morton Smith as M. Madiotes: Stephen Carlson’s Attribution of Secret Mark to a Bald Swindler.” Journal for the Study of the Historical Jesus 6 (2008): 106–25.

Bruce, F. F. The ‘Secret’ Gospel of Mark: The Ethel M. Wood Lecture Delivered Before the University of London on 11 February 1974. London: Athlone, 1974.

Burke, Tony. “Introduction.” Pages 1–29 in Ancient Gospel or Modern Forgery? The Secret Gospel of Mark in Debate: Proceedings from the 2011 York University Christian Apocrypha Symposium. Edited by Tony Burke. Eugene, OR: Cascade Books, 2013.

Calder III, William M. “Morton Smith.” Pages 229–31 in Men in Their Books: Studies in the Modern History of Classical Scholarship. 2nd ed. Edited by John P. Harris and R. Scott Smith. Zürich: Georg Olm, 2002.

———. “Smith, Morton.” Pages 600–602 in Biographical Dictionary of North American Classicists. Edited by Ward W. Briggs Jr. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1994.

Cameron, Ron, editor. The Other Gospels. Non-Canonical Gospel Texts. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1982.

Carlson, Stephen C. “Can the Academy Protect Itself from One of Its Own? The Case of Secret Mark.” Pages 299–307 in Ancient Gospel or Modern Forgery? The Secret Gospel of Mark in Debate. Proceedings from the 2011 York University Christian Apocrypha Symposium. Edited by Tony Burke. Eugene, OR: Cascade Books, 2013.

———. “‘Archaic Mark’ (MS 2427) and the Finding of a Manuscript Fake.” SBL Forum (posted August 2006). No pages. Online: http://sbl-site.org/Article.aspx?ArticleID=577.

———.  “Reply to Scott Brown.” ExpT 117 (2006): 185–88.

 ———. The Gospel Hoax: Morton Smith’s Invention of Secret Mark. Waco, TX: Baylor University Press, 2005.

Charlesworth, James H. Authentic Apocrypha: False and Genuine Christian Apocrypha. North Richland Hills, TX: Bibal Press, 1998.

Charlesworth, James and Evans, Craig A. “Jesus in the Agrapha and Apocryphal Gospels.” Pages 479–533 in Studying the Historical Jesus: Evaluations of the Current State of Research. Edited by Bruce Chilton and Craig A. Evans. NTTS 19. Leiden: Brill, 1994.

Chilton, Bruce. “Provenience: A Reply to Charles Hedrick.” Pages 67–74 in Ancient Gospel or Modern Forgery? The Secret Gospel of Mark in Debate: Proceedings from the 2011 York University Christian Apocrypha Symposium. Edited by Tony Burke. Eugene, OR: Cascade Books, 2013.

———. Review of The Gospel Hoax: Morton Smith’s Invention of Secret Mark, by Stephen Carlson. The Review of Rabbinic Judaism 10.1 (2007): 122–28.

———. “Unmasking a False Gospel.” New York Sun. 25 October 2006, 16. Online: http://www.nysun.com/arts/unmasking-a-false-gospel/42197/.

Choufrine, Arkadi. Gnosis, Theophany, Theosis: Studies in Clement of Alexandria’s Appropriation of His Background. Patristic Studies 5. New York: Peter Lang, 2002.

Cohen, Shaye J. D. “In Memoriam Morton Smith.” Pages 279–86 in Studies in the Cult of Yahweh. Vol. 2: New Testament, Early Christianity, and Magic, by Morton Smith. Edited by Shaye J. D. Cohen. Religions in the Graeco-Roman World 130.2. Leiden: Brill, 1996.

Collins, Adela Yarbro. Mark: A Commentary. Hermeneia. Minneapolis: Fortress, 2007.

Criddle, Andrew H. “On the Mar Saba Letter Attributed to Clement of Alexandria.” JECS 3 (1995): 215–20.

Crossan, John Dominic. Four Other Gospels: Shadows on the Contours of Canon. Minneapolis: Winston [Seabury], 1985.

Dart, John. Decoding Mark. Harrisburg: Trinity Press International, 2003.

Donfried, Karl Paul. “New-Found Fragments of an Early Gospel.” Christian Century 90 (1973): 759–60.

Dunn, James. “Reviews: Prominent Scholar on Trial. Ancient Gospel or Modern Forgery: The Secret Gospel of Mark in Debate, Edited by Tony Burke” BAR 39.5 (Sept–Oct. 2013): 71. Online: http://members.bib-arch.org/publication.asp?PubID=BSBA&Volume=39&Issue=5&ArticleID=23.

Edwards, James R. “Appendix: The Secret Gospel of Mark.” Pages 509–12 in The Gospel According to Mark. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2002.

Ehrman, Bart D. Lost Christianities: The Battles for Scripture and the Faiths We Never Knew. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

———. “Response to Charles Hedrick’s Stalemate.” JECS 11 (2003): 155–63.

Ellens, J. Harold. Review of The Secret Gospel of Mark Unveiled: Imagined Rituals of Sex, Death, and Madness in a Biblical Forgery, by Peter Jeffery. RBL (posted 1 June 2009). Pages 1–9. Online: http://www.bookreviews.org/pdf/5627_7785.pdf.

Elliott, J. K. The Apocryphal New Testament. A Collection of Apocryphal Christian Literature in an English Translation. 1993. Reprint, Oxford: Clarendon, 2009.

Evans, Craig A. “Morton Smith and the Secret Gospel of Mark: Exploring the Grounds for Doubt.” Pages 75–100 in Ancient Gospel or Modern Forgery? The Secret Gospel of Mark in Debate: Proceedings from the 2011 York University Christian Apocrypha Symposium. Edited by Tony Burke. Eugene, OR: Cascade Books, 2013.

———. “The Apocryphal Jesus: Assessing the Possibilities and Problems.” In Exploring the Origins of the Bible: Canon Formation in Historical, Literary, and Theological Perspective. Edited by Craig A. Evans and Emmanuel Tov, 147–72. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 2008.

———. Fabricating Jesus: How Modern Scholars Distort the Gospels. Downers Grove, IL: Inter-Varsity, 2006.

Eyer, Shawn. “The Strange Case of the Secret Gospel according to Mark: How Morton Smith’s Discovery of a Lost Letter of Clement of Alexandria Scandalized Biblical Scholarship.” Alexandria: The Journal for the Western Cosmological Traditions 3 (1995): 103–29. Online: http://gnosis.org/library/secm_commentary.htm.

Ferguson, John. Clement of Alexandria. TWAS 289. New York: Twayne, 1974.

Fitzmyer, Joseph A. “How to Exploit a Secret Gospel.” America 128 (1973): 570–72.

———. “Mark’s ‘Secret Gospel’?” America 129 (1973): 65.

Foster, Paul. “Foreword.” Pages xii–xxi n Ancient Gospel or Modern Forgery? The Secret Gospel of Mark in Debate. Proceedings from the 2011 York University Christian Apocrypha Symposium. Edited by Tony Burke. Eugene, OR: Cascade Books, 2013.

———. “Secret Mark.” Pages 126–38 in The Non-Canonical Gospels. Edited by Paul Foster. London: T. & T. Clark, 2008.

———. Review of Secret Gospel of Mark Unveiled: Imagined Rituals of Sex, Death, and Madness in a Biblical Forgery, by Peter Jeffery. ExpT 119 (2007): 50–51.

———. “Secret Mark: Uncovering a Hoax.” ExpT 117 (2005): 66–68.

———. “Secret Mark is no secret anymore.” ExpT 117 (2005): 64–66.

———. “Secret Mark: Its Discovery and the State of Research.” Expt 117 (2005): 46–52.

Fowler, Miles. “Identification of the Bethany Youth in the Secret Gospel of Mark with Other Figures Found in Mark and John.” Journal of the History of Christianity 5.1 (1998): 3–22. Online: http://www.depts.drew.edu/jhc/fowler.html.

Frend, William H.C. “A New Jesus?” New York Review of Books 20 (9 August 1973): 34–35.

Frey, Jörg. “Texts about Jesus: Non-canonical Gospels and Related Literature.” Pages 13–47 in The Oxford Handbook of Early Christian Apocrypha. Edited by Andrew Gregory and Christopher Tuckett. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015.

Fuller, Reginald H. “Longer Mark: Forgery, Interpolation, or Old Tradition?” Pages 1–11 in Longer Mark: Forgery, Interpolation, or Old Tradition? Protocol of the Eighteenth Colloquy: 7 December 1975. Edited by Wilhelm H. Wuellner. Berkeley: Center for Hermeneutical Studies, 1976.

Furnish, Victor Paul. “Mark, Secret Gospel of.” In The Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible. Supplementary Volume. Edited by Keith Crim et al. Nashville: Abingdon, 1976.

Goodspeed, Edgar Johnson. Strange New Gospels. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1931. Reprinted as Famous Biblical Hoaxes. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1956.

Grafton, Anthony. “Gospel Secrets: The Biblical Controversies of Morton Smith.” The Nation. (26 January 2009). Online: http://www.thenation.com/article/gospel-secrets-biblical-controversies-morton-smith/.

Grant, Robert. “Morton Smith’s Two Books.” Anglican Theological Review 56 (1974): 58–65.

Gundry, Robert H. “Excursus on the Secret Gospel of Mark.” Pages 603–23 in Mark: A Commentary on His Apology for the Cross. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1993.

———. “On The Secret Gospel of Mark.” Pages 74–97 in The Old is Better: New Testament Essays in Support of Traditional Interpretations. Edited by Robert Gundry. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2005.

Hanhart, Karel. The Open Tomb: A New Approach, Mark’s Passover Haggadah ([ca.] 72 C.E.). Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1995.

Hanson, R. P. C. Review of Clement of Alexandria and a Secret Gospel of Mark, by Morton Smith. JTS 25 (1974): 513–21.

Haren, Michael J. “The Naked Young Man: A Historian’s Hypothesis on Mark 14,51–52.” Biblica 79 (1998): 525–31.

Hedrick, Charles W. “Secret Mark: Moving on From Stalemate.” Pages 30–66 in Ancient Gospel or Modern Forgery? The Secret Gospel of Mark in Debate: Proceedings from the 2011 York University Christian Apocrypha Symposium. Edited by Tony Burke. Eugene, OR: Cascade Books, 2013.

———. “Evaluating Morton Smith: Hoaxer Outed or Colleague Slandered?” Perspectives in Religious Studies 37.3 (2010): 1–12.

———. “An Amazing Discovery.” BAR 35.6 (Nov/Dec 2009): 44–48, 86.

———. “The Secret Gospel of Mark: Stalemate in the Academy.” JECS 11 (2003): 133–45.

Hedrick, Charles W. and Nikolaos Olympiou. “Secret Mark: New Photographs, New Witnesses.” The Fourth R 13.5 (Sept/Oct 2000): 3–16.

Hobbs, Edward C. “Response to Reginald Fuller.” Pages 19–25 in Longer Mark: Forgery, Interpretation, or Old Tradition? Protocol of the Eighteenth Colloquy: 7 December 1975. Edited by W. Wuellner. Berkeley, CA: Center for Hermeneutical Studies, 1975.

Hoek, Annewies van den. “Clement and Origen as Sources on ‘Noncanonical’ Scriptural Traditions during the Late Second and Earlier Third Centuries.” Pages 93–113 in Origeniana Sexta: Origène et la Bible/Origen and the Bible. Edited by Gilles Dorival and Alain Le Boulluec. Actes du Colloquium Origenianum Sextum Chantilly. Leuven: Leuven University Press, 1995.

Horst, Pieter W. van der. “Het ‘Geheime Markusevangelie.’” Nederlands Theologisch Tijdschrift 33 (1979): 27–51.

———. Het ‘Geheime Markusevangelie.’ Over een nieuwe vondst.” Pages 37–64 in De onbekende god: Essays over de joodse en hellenistische achtergrond van het vroege christendom. Utrechtse Theologische Reeks 2. Utrecht: Universiteitsdrukkerij, 1988.

Howard, Jackson M. “Why the Youth Shed his Cloak and Fled Naked: The Meaning and Purpose of Mark 14:51–52.” JBL 116 (1997): 273–89.

Hüller, Stephen and Daniel Gullota. “Quentin Quesnell’s Secret Mark Secret: A Report on Quentin Quesnell’s 1983 trip to Jerusalem and his inspection of the Mar Saba Document.” VC 71.4 (2017): 353–78.

Humphrey, Hugh M. From Q to ‘Secret’ Mark: A Composition History of the Earliest Narrative Theology. New York and London: T & T Clark, 2006.

Hunter, James Hogg. The Mystery of Mar Saba. New York and Toronto: Evangelical Publishers, 1940.

Hurtado, Larry. Lord Jesus Christ: Devotion to Jesus in Earliest Christianity. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2003.

Ingram, Helen. Dragging Down Heaven: Jesus as Magician and Manipulator of Spirits in the Gospels. PhD diss., University of Birmingham, 2007.

Jaeger, Werner. Early Christianity and Greek Paideia. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1961.

Jakab, Attila. “Une lettre ‘perdue’ de Clément d’Alexandrie? (Morton Smith et l’‘Évangile secret’ de Marc).” Apocrypha 10 (1999): 7–15.

Jay, Jeff. “A New Look at the Epistolary Framework of the Secret Gospel of Mark.” JECS 16 (2008): 573–97.

Jeffery, Peter. “Clement’s Mysteries and Morton Smith’s Magic.” In Ancient Gospel or Modern Forgery? The Secret Gospel of Mark in Debate: Proceedings from the 2011 York University Christian Apocrypha Symposium. Edited by Tony Burke, 212–46. Eugene, Ore.: Cascade Books, 2013.

———. “Peter Jeffery: Additional Response to Handwriting Analysis.” Biblical Archaeology Review Scholar’s Study (posted 24 January 2011). No pages. Online: http://www.bib-arch.org/scholars-study/secret-mark-handwriting-response-jeffery-2.asp.

———. “Response to Handwriting Analysis.” Biblical Archaeology Review Scholar’s Study (posted 19 April 2010). No pages. Online: http://www.bib-arch.org/scholars-study/secret-mark-handwriting-response-jeffery.asp.

———. “The Secret Gospel of Mark Revisited.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society of Biblical Literature, New Orleans, LA, 21 November 2009. Online: http://www.music.princeton.edu/~jeffery/Psybibssession.pdf.

———. “The Secret Gospel of Mark Unveiled: Reply to Scott G. Brown.”  Peter Jeffery’s Home Page (posted 2008). Pages 1–21. Online: http://www.music.princeton.edu/~jeffery/replytobrown.pdf.

———. The Secret Gospel of Mark Unveiled: Imagined Rituals of Sex, Death, and Madness in a Biblical Forgery. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2007.

Jenkins, Philip. Hidden Gospels: How the Search for Jesus Lost Its Way. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

———. “Alexandrian Attitudes: A new source for the ‘Secret Gospel of Mark.’” Books and Culture: A Christian Review 20.3 (May–June 2014): 8–10. Online: http://www.booksandculture.com/articles/2014/mayjun/alexandrian-attitudes.html.

Jennings, Theodore W., Jr. The Man Jesus Loved: Homoerotic Narratives from the New Testament. Cleveland: Pilgrim Press, 2003.

Jewett, Robert. Review of The Secret Gospel: The Discovery and Interpretation of a Secret Gospel of Mark, by Morton Smith. The Christian Advocate 14 (1973): 15–16.

Johnson, Maxwell E. Review of The Secret Gospel of Mark Unveiled: Imagined Rituals of Sex, Death, and Madness in a Biblical Forgery, by Peter Jeffery. Worship 82 (2008): 85–89.

Johnson, Sherman E. “The Mystery of St Mark.” History Today 25 (1975): 89–97.

———. “Response to Reginald Fuller.” Pages 26–28 in Longer Mark: Forgery, Interpolation, or Old Tradition? Edited by Wilhelm H. Wuellner. Protocol of the Eighteenth Colloquy: 7 December 1975. Berkeley: Center for Hermeneutical Studies in Hellenistic and Modern Culture, 1976.

Johnson, Steven R. “The Identity and Significance of the Neaniskos in Mark.” Forum 8 (1992): 123–39.

Kaestli, Jean-Daniel. “Introduction de l’Évangile secret de Marc” and “L’Évangile secret de Marc.” Pages 55–69 in volume 1 of Écrits apocryphes chrétiens. Edited by François Bovon and Pierre Geoltrain. Paris: Gallimard, 1997.

———. “L’Évangile secret de Marc. Une version longue de l’Évangile de Marc réservée aux chrétiens avancés dans l’Église d’Alexandrie? Fragment d’une lettre de Clément d’Alexandrie au sujet de l’Évangile secret de Marc.” Pages 113–36 in Le mystère apocryphe. Introduction à une littérature méconnue. Second Edition. Edited by Jean-Daniel Kaestli and Daniel Marguerat. EsBi 26. Geneva: Labor et Fides, 2007.

Kee, Howard Clark. Review of The Secret Gospel: The Discovery and Interpretation of the Secret Gospel according to Mark, by Morton Smith. JAAR 43 (1975): 326–29.

Kelly, Nicole E. Review of The Secret Gospel of Mark Unveiled: Imagined Rituals of Sex, Death, and Madness in a Biblical Forgery, by Peter Jeffery. Magic, Ritual and Witchcraft 4 (2009): 114–17.

Kermode, Frank. “The Quest for the Magical Jesus.” The New York Review of Books. 26 October 1978. Online: http://www.nybooks.com/articles/1978/10/26/the-quest-for-the-magical-jesus/.

Knox, Sanka. “Expert Disputes ‘Secret Gospel’: Theologian Says Style of Excerpts Does Not Show They Were by Mark.” New York Times. 31 December 1960, 7.

———.  “A New Gospel Ascribed to Mark: Copy of Greek Letter Says Saint Kept ‘Mysteries’ Out.” New York Times. 30 December 1960, 1, 17.

Koester, Helmut. “Was Morton Smith a Great Thespian and I a Complete Fool?” BAR 35.6 (Nov/Dec 2009): 54–58, 88–90.

———. Ancient Christian Gospels: Their History and Development. London: SCM; Philadelphia: Trinity Press International, 1990.

———. “History and Development of Mark’s Gospel (From Mark to Secret Mark and ‘Canonical’ Mark).” Pages 35–57 in Colloquy on New Testament Studies. A Time for Reappraisal and Fresh Approaches. Edited by Bruce C. Corley. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 1983.

———. “Response to Reginald Fuller.” Pages 29–32 in Longer Mark: Forgery, Interpolation, or Old Tradition? Protocol of the Eighteenth Colloquy: 7 December 1975. Edited by Wilhelm H. Wuellner. Berkeley: Center for Hermeneutical Studies, 1976.

———. Review of The Secret Gospel: The Discovery and Interpretation of the Secret Gospel according to Mark and Clement of Alexandria and a Secret Gospel of Mark, by Morton Smith. American Historical Review 80 (1975): 620–22.

Kok, Michael J. Review of Ancient Gospel or Modern Forgery? The Secret Gospel of Mark in Debate: Proceedings from the 2011 York University Christian Apocrypha Symposium, by Tony Burke. ExpT 126 (2015): 452–53.

———. The Gospel on the Margins: The Reception of Mark in the Second Century. Minneapolis: Fortress, 2015.

Kuchinsky, Yuri. “Secret Gospel of Mark: Morton Smith’s Discovery is an Authentic Document.” Secret Gospel of Mark (posted August 2003). Online: http://www.globalserve.net/~yuku/bbl/secmk.htm.

Kuruvilla, Abraham. “The Naked Runaway and The Enrobed Reporter of Mark 14 and 16: What is the Author Doing with What He is Saying?” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 54.3 (2011): 527–45.

Landry, David T. “Noncanonical Texts: The Da Vinci Code and Beyond.” Word & World 29.4 (2009): 367–79.

Le Boulluec, Alain. Review of Mark’s Other Gospel: Rethinking Morton Smith’s Controversial Discovery, by Scott G. Brown and The Gospel Hoax: Morton Smith’s Invention of Secret Mark, by Stephen C. Carlson. Apocrypha 19 (2008): 308–13.

———. “La lettre sur l’‘Évangile secret’ de Marc et le Quis dives salvetur? de Clément d’Alexandrie.” Apocrypha 7 (1996): 27–41.

Levin, Saul. “The Early History of Christianity, in Light of the ‘Secret Gospel’ of Mark.” ANRW 2.25.6 (1988): 4270–92.

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Lührmann, Dieter. “Das ‘geheime Markusevangelium’ bei Pseudo-Clemens.” Pages 182–85 in Fragmente apokryph gewordener Evangelien in griechischer und lateinischer Sprache. Münchener theologische Studien 59. Marburg: N.G. Elwert, 2000.

Marcus, Joel. Mark 1–8: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary. AB 27. New York: Doubleday, 2000.

Martin, Annick. “À propos de la lettre attribuée à Clément d’Alexandrie sur l’Évangile secret de Marc.” Pages 277–300 in Colloque international “L’Évangile selon Thomas et les textes de Nag Hammadi” (Québec, 29–31 mai 2003). Edited by Louis Painchaud and Paul-Hubert Poirier. Bibliothèque copte de Nag Hammadi, Section Études 8. Quebec, Leuven and Paris: Presses de l’Université Laval and Peeters, 2007.

Martin, Raymond A. “Syntax Criticism of Morton Smith’s Letter of Clement and Secret Mark.” Appendix 6 in Syntax Criticism of the Synoptic Gospels. Studies in the Bible and Early Christianity 10. Lewiston: Edwin Mellen, 1987.

Meier, John P. A Marginal Jew: Rethinking the Historical Jesus. Vol. 1. New York: Doubleday, 1991.

Merkel, Helmut. “Appendix: The ‘Secret Gospel’ of Mark.” Pages 106–109 in New Testament Apocrypha. Vol. 1: Gospels and Related Writings. Second Revised Edition. Edited by Wilhelm Schneemelcher. Translated by R. McL. Wilson. Cambridge: James Clarke; Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1991.

———. “Auf den Spuren des Urmarkus? Ein neuer Fund und seine Beurteilung.” Zeitschrift fuer Theologie und Kirche 71 (1974): 123–44.

Meyer, Marvin. “The Young Streaker in Secret and Canonical Mark.” Pages 145–56 in Ancient Gospel or Modern Forgery? The Secret Gospel of Mark in Debate: Proceedings from the 2011 York University Christian Apocrypha Symposium. Edited by Tony Burke. Eugene, OR: Cascade Books, 2013.

———. “Whom Did Jesus Love Most? Beloved Disciples in John and Other Gospels.” Pages 73–92 in The Legacy of John: The Second Century Reception of the Fourth Gospel. Edited by Tuomas Rasimus. Leiden: Brill, 2010.

———. Secret Gospels: Essays on Thomas and the Secret Gospel of Mark. New York and London: Continuum, 2003.

———. “The Naked Youths in the Villa of the Mysteries, Canonical Mark, and Secret Mark.” Pages 149–67 in Secret Gospels: Essays on Thomas and the Secret Gospel of Mark. New York and London: Continuum, 2003.

———. “Mark, Secret Gospel of.” Pages 558–59 in The Anchor Bible Dictionary. Volume 4. Edited by David Noel Freedman et al. New York: Doubleday, 1992.

———. “The Youth in Secret Mark and the Beloved Disciple in John.” Pages 94–105 in Gospel Origins and Christian Beginnings: In Honor of James M. Robinson. Edited by Jack T. Sanders, Charles W. Hedrick, and James E. Goehring. Sonoma, CA: Polebridge, 1990.

———. “The Youth in the Secret Gospel of Mark.” Semeia 49 (1990): 129–53.

Milton, Leslie. Review of The Secret Gospel: The Discovery and Interpretation of the Secret Gospel according to Mark, by Morton Smith. ExpT 86 (1975): 130–32.

Mullins, Terence Y. “Papias and Clement and Mark’s Two Gospels.” VC 30.3 (1976): 189–92.

Munro, Winsome. “Women Disciples: Light from Secret Mark.” Journal of Feminist Studies of Religion 8 (1992): 47–64.

Murgia, Charles E. “Secret Mark: Real or Fake?” Pages 35–40 in Reginald Fuller, Longer Mark: Forgery, Interpolation, or Old Tradition? Protocol of the Eighteenth Colloquy: 7 December 1975. Edited by Wilhelm H. Wuellner. Berkeley: Center for Hermeneutical Studies, 1976.

Musurillo, Herbert. “Morton Smith’s Secret Gospel.” Thought 48 (1973): 327–31.

Neirynck, Frans. “The Apocryphal Gospels and the Gospel of Mark.” Pages 123–75 in The New Testament in Early Christianity. Edited by Jean-Marie Sevrin. BETL 86. Leuven: Leuven University Press, 1989.

———. “The Minor Agreements and Proto-Mark: A Response to H. Koester.” Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses 67 (1991): 82–94.

Neusner, Jacob. Are There Really Tannaitic Parallels to the Gospels? A Refutation of Morton Smith. SFSHJ 80. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1993.

Nineham, Dennis. Review of The Secret Gospel: The Discovery and Interpretation of the Secret Gospel according to Mark, by Morton Smith. JTS 27 (1976): 195–97.

Oden, Thomas C. The African Memory of Mark: Reassessing Early Church Tradition. Downers Grove, IL: Inter-Varsity, 2011.

Osborn, Eric F. “Clement of Alexandria: A Review of Research, 1958–1982.” Second Century 3 (1983): 219–44.

Paananen, Timo S. “From Stalemate to Deadlock: Clement’s Letter to Theodore in Recent Scholarship.” Currents in Biblical Research 11 (2012): 87–125.

———. “Master’s Thesis: A Conspiracy of the Secret Evangelist: Recent Debate Concerning Clement of Alexandria’s Letter to Theodore.” Salainen evankelista (posted 3 June 2009). No pages. Online: http://salainenevankelista.blogspot.com/2009/06/masters-thesis-conspiracy-of-secret.html.

Pantuck, Allan J. “A question of ability: what did he know and when did he know it? Further excavations from the Morton Smith archives.” Pages 184–211 in Ancient Gospel or Modern Forgery? The Secret Gospel of Mark in Debate: Proceedings from the 2011 York University Christian Apocrypha Symposium. Edited by Tony Burke. Eugene, OR: Cascade Books, 2013.

———. “Response to Agamemnon Tselikas on Morton Smith and the Manuscripts from Cephalonia.” Biblical Archaeology Review Scholar’s Study (posted 19 August 2011). No pages. Online: http://www.bib-arch.org/scholars-study/secret-mark-handwriting-response-pantuck-2.asp.

———. “Solving the Mysterion of Morton Smith and the Secret Gospel of Mark.” Biblical Archaeology Review Scholar’s Study (posted 20 February 2011). No pages. Online: http://www.bib-arch.org/scholars-study/secret-mark-handwriting-response-pantuck.pdf.

Parker, Pierson. “On Professor Morton Smith’s Find at Mar-Saba.” Anglican Theological Review 56 (1974): 53–57.

———. “An Early Christian Cover-Up?” New York Times Book Review. 22 July 1973, 5.

Patterson, Stephen J. and Koester, Helmut. “The Secret Gospel of Mark.” Pages 402–405 in The Complete Gospels: Scholar’s Version. Edited by Robert J. Miller. Sonoma, CA: Polebridge Press, 1992.

Peabody, David. “The Late Secondary Redaction of Mark’s Gospel and the Griesbach Hypothesis: A Response to Helmut Koester.” Pages 87–132 in Colloquy on New Testament Studies: A Time for Reappraisal and Fresh Approaches. Edited by Bruce Corley. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 1983.

Pearson, Birger A. “The Secret Gospel of Mark: A 20th Century Forgery.” Interdisciplinary Journal of Research on Religion 4 (2008). Article 6. Pages 1–14. Online: http://www.religjournal.com/.

———. “Earliest Christianity in Egypt: Some Observations.” Pages 132–56 in The Roots of Egyptian Christianity. Edited by Birger A. Pearson and James E. Goehring. SAC. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1986.

———. “Response to Reginald Fuller.” Page 40 in Longer Mark: Forgery, Interpolation, or Old Tradition? Edited by Wilhelm H. Wuellner. Protocol of the Eighteenth Colloquy: 7 December 1975. Berkeley: Center for Hermeneutical Studies in Hellenistic and Modern Culture, 1976.

Piovanelli, Pierluigi. “Halfway between Sabbatai Tzevi and Aleister Crowley: Morton Smith’s “Own Concept of What Jesus ‘Must’ Have Been’ and, Once Again, the Questions of Evidence and Motive.” Pages 157–83 in Ancient Gospel or Modern Forgery? The Secret Gospel of Mark in Debate: Proceedings from the 2011 York University Christian Apocrypha Symposium. Edited by Tony Burke. Eugene, OR: Cascade Books, 2013.

———. “Une certaine ‘Keckheit, Kühnheit und Grandiosität’… La correspondance entre Morton Smith et Gershom Scholem (1945–1982). Notes critiques.” Revue de l’histoire des religions 228 (2011): 403–29.

———. “L’Évangile Secret de Marc trente-trois ans après, entre potentialities exégétiques et difficulties techniques (1re partie).” Revue Biblique 114.1 (2007): 52–72, 237–54.

Price, Robert M. “Second Thoughts on the Secret Gospel.” Bulletin for Biblical Research 14 (2004): 127–32.

Quesnell, Quentin. “A Reply to Morton Smith.” CBQ 38 (1976): 200–203.

———. “The Mar Saba Clementine: A Question of Evidence.” CBQ 37 (1975): 48–67.

———. “‘Secret Gospel’: Improbable Puzzle.” National Catholic Reporter (30 November 1973): 12.

Rau, Eckhard. “Weder gefälscht noch authentisch? Überlegungen zum Status des geheimen Markusevangeliums als Quelle des antiken Christentums.” Pages 139–86 in Jesus in apokryphen Evangelienüberlieferungen. Beiträge zu ausserkanonischen Jesusüberlieferungen aus verschiedenen Sprach- und Kulturtraditionen. Edited by Jörg Frey and Jens Schröter. WUNT I 254. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2010.

———. “Das Geheimnis des Reiches Gottes. Die esoterische Rezeption der Lehre Jesu im geheimen Markusevangelium.” Pages 187–221 in Jesus in apokryphen Evangelienüberlieferungen. Beiträge zu ausserkanonischen Jesusüberlieferungen aus verschiedenen Sprach- und Kulturtraditionen. Edited by Jörg Frey and Jens Schröter. WUNT 1.254. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2010.

Reese, James M. Review of Clement of Alexandria and a Secret Gospel of Mark, by Morton Smith. CBQ 36.3 (1974): 434–35.

Richardson, Cyril C. Review of The Secret Gospel: The Discovery and Interpretation of the Secret Gospel according to Mark and Clement of Alexandria and a Secret Gospel of Mark, by Morton Smith. Theological Studies 35 (1974): 571–77.

Russo, Nicholas V. “A Note on the Role of Secret Mark in the Search for the Origins of Lent.” Studia Liturgica 37 (2007): 181–97.

Schenke, Hans-Martin. “The Mystery of the Gospel of Mark.” Pages 554–72 in Der Same Seths: Hans-Martin Schenkes Kleine Schriften zu Gnosis, Koptologie und Neuem Testament. Edited by Gesine Schenke Robinson, Gesa Schenke and Uwe-Karsten Plisch. Nag Hammadi and Manichean Studies 78. Leiden: Brill, 2012.

———. “The Mystery of the Gospel of Mark.” Second Century 4 (1984): 65–82.

Shanks, Hershel. “Annual Meetings Offer Intellectual Bazaar and Moments of High Drama.” BAR 11.2 (Mar/April 1985): 16.

———.   “Morton Smith—Forger.” BAR 35.6 (Nov/Dec 2009): 49–53, 86, 88.

———.  “Restoring a Dead Scholar’s Reputation.” BAR 35.6 (Nov/Dec 2009): 59–61, 90–91.

———.  “First Person: Shakespeare, the Earl of Oxford and Morton Smith.” BAR 36.6 (Nov/Dec 2010): 6–7, 66.

———.  “Handwriting Experts Weigh In on ‘Secret Mark.’” BAR 36.3 (May/June 2010): 18, 79.

 

———. “Was Morton Smith the Bernie Madoff of the Academy?” Pages 135–44 in Ancient Gospel or Modern Forgery? The Secret Gospel of Mark in Debate: Proceedings from the 2011 York University Christian Apocrypha Symposium. Edited by Tony Burke. Eugene, OR: Cascade Books, 2013.

Schildgen, Brenda Deen. Power and Prejudice: The Reception of the Gospel of Mark. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1999.

Schmidt, Daryl. “Response to Reginald Fuller.” Pages 41–45 in Longer Mark: Forgery, Interpolation, or Old Tradition? Protocol of the Eighteenth Colloquy: 7 December 1975. Edited by Wilhelm H. Wuellner. Berkeley: Center for Hermeneutical Studies, 1976.

Scroggs, Robin, and Kent I. Groff. “Baptism in Mark: Dying and Rising with Christ.” JBL 92 (1973): 531–48.

Sellew, Philip. “Secret Mark and the History of Canonical Mark.” Pages 242–57 in The Future of Early Christianity: Essays in Honor of Helmut Koester. Edited by Birger A. Pearson. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1991.

 

Shenker, Israel. “A Scholar Infers Jesus Practiced Magic.” The New York Times. 23 May 1973, 39.

———.  “Jesus: New Ideas about His Powers.” The New York Times. 3 June 1973, p. IV 12.

Shepherd, Massey H. “Response to Reginald H. Fuller.” Pages 46–52 in Longer Mark: Forgery, Interpolation, or Old Tradition? Protocol of the Eighteenth Colloquy: 7 December 1975. Edited by Wilhelm H. Wuellner. Berkeley: Center for Hermeneutical Studies, 1976.

Sider, Ronald J. “Unfounded ‘Secret.’” Christianity Today 18.3. 9 November 1973: 160.

Smith, Ben C. “Kuchinsky on the Secret Gospel of Mark.” Text Excavation (posted 31 July 2006). Online: http://www.textexcavation.com/kuchinskybrownsecmk.html.

Smith, Edward Reaugh. The Temple Sleep of the Rich Young Ruler: How Lazarus Became the Evangelist John. Great Barrington, MA: Steinerbooks, 2011.

Smith, Kyle. “‘Mixed with Inventions’: Salt and Metaphor in Secret Mark.” The Secret Gospel of Mark Homepage (posted October 2005). Pages 1–20. Online: http://www-user.uni-bremen.de/~wie/Secret/SALT-PAPER.rtf.

Smith, Morton. “Two Ascended to Heaven – Jesus and the Author of 4Q491.” Pages 290–301 in Jesus and the Dead Sea Scrolls. Edited by J. H. Charlesworth. New York: Doubleday, 1992.

———. “Regarding Secret Mark: A Response by Morton Smith to the Account by Per Beskow.” JBL 103 (1984): 624.

———. “Clement of Alexandria and Secret Mark: The Score at the End of the First Decade.” HTR 75 (1982): 449–61.

———. The Secret Gospel: The Discovery and Interpretation of the Secret Gospel according to Mark. New York: Harper & Row, 1973. Reprint, Clearlake, CA: Dawn Horse, 1982.

———. “Under the Sheet.” New York Review of Books 26/1. 8 February 1979. Online:  http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/1979/feb/08/under-the-sheet/.

———. Jesus the Magician. San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1978.

———. “A Rare Sense of prokoptō and the Authenticity of the Letter of Clement of Alexandria.” In God’s Christ and His People: Studies in Honor of Nils Alstrup Dahl. Edited by Jacob Jervell and Wayne A. Meeks. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, 1977.

———. “Response to Reginald H. Fuller.” Pages 12–15 in Longer Mark: Forgery, Interpolation, or Old Tradition? Protocol of the Eighteenth Colloquy: 7 December 1975. Edited by Wilhelm H. Wuellner. Berkeley: Center for Hermeneutical Studies, 1976.

———. “On the Authenticity of the Mar Saba Letter of Clement.” CBQQ 38 (1976): 196–99.

———. “Merkel on the Longer Text of Mark.” Zeitschrift für Theologie und Kirche 72 (1975): 133–50.

———. “Reply to Joseph Fitzmeyer in ‘Mark’s ‘Secret Gospel?’.” America 129 (1973): 64–65.

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———. “Monasteries and their Manuscripts.” Archaeology 13 (1960): 172–77.

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———. “Comments on Charles Hedrick’s Article: A Testimony.” JECS 11 (2003): 147–53.

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———. The Origins of the Liturgical Year. New York: Pueblo, 1986.

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———. “Secret Gospels and Lost Christianities, Part II.” Sunrise. February/March 2004.

———. “Secret Gospels and Lost Christianities, Part III.” Sunrise. June/July 2004.

———. “Secret Gospels and Lost Christianities, Part IV.” Sunrise. August/September 2004.

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———. “Agamemnon Tselikas’ Handwriting Analysis Report.” Biblical Archaeology Review Scholar’s Study (posted May 2011). No pages. Online: http://www.bib-arch.org/scholars-study/secret-mark-handwriting-agamemnon.asp.

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———.  “An Eighteenth-Century Manuscript: Control of the Scribal Hand in Clement’s Letter to Theodore.” Apocrypha 26 (2015): 261–98.

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———. “Beyond Suspicion: On the Authorship of the Mar Saba Letter and the Secret Gospel of Mark.” JTS 61 (2010): 128–70.

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