Protevangelium of James

Proteuangelium Iacobi

Standard abbreviation: Prot. Jas.

Other titles: Proto-Gospel of James, Infancy Gospel of James, Gospel of James, Genesis Marias.

Clavis numbers: CANT 50; BHG 1046; BHO 611–16

Category: Infancy Gospels

Related Literature: Arabic Infancy Gospel, Armenian Infancy Gospel, Book about the Birth of the Savior, Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew, History of the Virgin (East Syriac), Life of Mary (West Syriac), Nativity of Mary

Compiled by: Eric M. Vanden Eykel, Ferrum College (

Citing this resource (using Chicago Manual of Style): Vanden Eykel, Eric M. “Protevangelium of James.” e-Clavis: Christian Apocrypha. Accessed DAY MONTH YEAR.

Posted March 2017.


The Protevangelium of James is a story of the birth, childhood, and adolescence of Mary the mother of Jesus. Penned in the latter half of the second century CE, the text exhibits an early and high Mariology. It begins with Mary’s parents, Anna and Joachim, who are introduced by the narrator as wealthy, generous, and childless (ch. 1). After fasting and petitioning (chs. 2, 3), Anna becomes pregnant, and she vows to dedicate her child to the service of God (ch. 4). Mary’s backstory in this text is set up to mirror the biblical story of Samuel (in 1 Sam 1), and as such, the reader is prompted to anticipate that Mary’s childhood will be significant.

After Mary is born (ch. 5), the author begins to underline the remarkable nature of her person. She begins walking at the age of six months, at which point Anna constructs a sanctuary in her bedroom to keep her safe from defilement (ch. 6). Here one of the major themes of the text—Mary’s purity—is brought to the fore. This theme continues to manifest itself in subsequent episodes. Joachim and Anna bring her to live in the Jerusalem temple at the age of three, and she lives there for the next nine years (chs. 7, 8). After she turns twelve, the priests determine that she should leave the temple, presumably out of fear that her imminent monthly cycle will contaminate the sacred space (ch. 8). They summon the widowers of Israel, and Joseph is chosen by a process of divination to take the young virgin into his home. He protests initially, citing the fact that he has children older than her. This sets up one of the text’s contributions to traditional interpretation of the siblings of Jesus mentioned in the canonical gospels (e.g., Matt 13:55–56; Mark 3:31, 6:3)—namely, that they were children of Joseph from a previous marriage.

When they arrive home Joseph departs almost immediately, leaving Mary alone (ch. 9). The priests call her back to the temple after this, and along with a number of other virgins, she is assigned the task of helping to spin thread for a new temple veil (ch. 10). While she is spinning her thread, an angel visits Mary and delivers the news of her impending pregnancy (ch. 11). She then goes to visit her relative Elizabeth (ch. 12), and not long after she returns home a distraught Joseph discovers her condition (ch. 13). Echoing Matthew’s gospel, Joseph is reassured by an angel that Mary’s pregnancy is the work of God (ch. 14). When word of it spreads, however, Joseph and Mary are called before the high priest to give an account, and they are subjected to a drink test reminiscent of the so-called Ordeal of Bitter Water in Numbers 5:11–31. When they pass the test, they return home vindicated (ch. 16).

The census of Caesar Augustus summons them from their home, and while they are on their way to register, Mary begins to labor (ch. 17). Joseph leaves her in a cave and goes out in search of a midwife. While he is traveling, time stops, and he witnesses the stilling of creation (ch. 18). He eventually finds a midwife, and they return to the cave together just as a dark cloud is enveloping the entrance. When the cloud dissipates, a bright light flashes, and Jesus appears in Mary’s arms and then begins to nurse (ch. 19). The midwife announces what she has seen (i.e., a virgin having given birth) to a previously-unmentioned character named Salome. When Salome hears the message, she is doubtful, and she enters the cave in search of proof (ch. 19). She begins to examine the Virgin and her hand promptly bursts into flames. An angel appears and instructs her to pick up Jesus; when she does, her hand is healed, and she departs (ch. 20).

The Magi appear shortly after Jesus is born, having been sent there after an encounter with King Herod in Jerusalem (ch. 21). Herod is enraged when they do not report back, and he orders the slaughter of all infants two years old and younger. Elizabeth and her newborn John are saved miraculously when a mountain opens up and offers them shelter (ch. 22). Elizabeth’s husband Zechariah is murdered for failing to disclose the location of his son, and when the people hear of it they begin to mourn (chs. 23, 24). The text in its present form ends with a brief epilogue naming its author (James), and describing the supposed circumstances of its composition (ch. 25).

Scholars dispute the intended function of the Protevangelium. Some argue that it was written in order to defend Mary from certain of the criticisms that we find, for example, in the True Doctrine of Celsus. Others maintain that it is a sort of paean, intended to lavish her with praise. The author shows a deep familiarity with most if not all of the canonical gospels, and is clearly interested in presenting them as harmonious accounts. This is especially the case with Matthew and Luke, whose infancy narratives are presented as interlocking and complementary. The author almost certainly intends this narrative to be read as a supplement to these narratives.

Named historical figures and characters: Abeira, Abraham (patriarch), Adam (patriarch), Anna (mother of Mary), Annas (scribe/high priest), Caesar Augustus, Core, Dathan, David (king), Elizabeth, Eve (matriarch), Gabriel (angel), Herod (the Great), Holy Spirit,  Isaac (patriarch), Jesus Christ, Jacob (patriarch), James (the Righteous), Joachim (father of Mary), John (the Baptist), Joseph (of Nazareth), Judith (servant), Magi, Mary (Virgin), Reuben, Reuben (patriarch), Salome (midwife), Samuel (priest), Sarah (matriarch), Simeon, Zechariah (priest).

Geographical locations: Bethlehem, Israel, Jerusalem, Judea, temple (Jerusalem).


2.1 Documentaries

bullet-watchJennings, Tom, dir. The Secret Lives of Jesus. Washington, DC: National Geographic Video, 2006. Segment: 5:35–8:05.

bullet-watchMadeja, Geoffrey, dir. Banned from the Bible. The History Channel, Episode 1, 2003. New York: A & E Home Video, 2008. Segment: 52:48–62:30.

2.2 Web Sites and Other Online Resources

Kirby, Peter. “Infancy Gospel of James.” Early Christian Writings. Contains a number of English translations of the Protevangelium as well as some helpful background information.

“Gospel of James.” Wikipedia.

2.3 Art and Iconography

The Protevangelium has exercised an enormous influence on artistic imaginations throughout the centuries (whether directly or through one of its “sister” texts, e.g., the Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew).

Giotto betrays familiarity with the narrative in his fresco cycle in the Scrovegni Chapel.

The same can be said for certain of the mosaics in the Papal Basilica Santa Maria Maggiore.

Scholarly works addressing the influence of this text on art and iconography include:

Dunford, Penelope A., “The Iconography of the Frescoes in the Oratorio di S. Giovanni at Urbino.” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 36. (1973): 367–73.

Egbert, Virginia Wylie, “The Portal of the Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary at Higham Ferrers.” The Art Bulletin 41 (1959): 256–60.

Friedmann, Herbert, “Giovanni del Biondo and the Iconography of the Annunciation.” Simiolus: Netherlands Quarterly for the History of Art 3 (1968): 6–14.

Hood, William, “The Narrative Mode in Titian’s ‘Presentation of the Virgin’.” Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome 35 (1980): 125–62.

Jolly, Penny Howell, “Learned Reading, Vernacular Seeing: Jacques Daret’s Presentation in the Temple.” The Art Bulletin 82 (2000): 428–52.

Mann, Judith W., “The Annunciation Chapel in the Quirinal Palace, Rome: Paul V, Guido Reni, and the Virgin Mary.” The Art Bulletin 75 (1993): 113–34.

Marsh-Edwards, J. C., “The Magi in Tradition and Art.” Irish Ecclesiastical Record 85 (1956): 1–9.

Peppard, Michael. “Illuminating the Dura-Europos Baptistery: Comparanda for the Female Figures.” JECS 20 (2012): 543–74.

Robb, David M., “The Iconography of the Annunciation in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries.” The Art Bulletin 18 (1936): 480–526.

Robinson, J. W., “A Commentary on the York Play of the Birth of Jesus.” Journal of English and Germanic Philology 70 (1971): 241–54.

Sheingorn, Pamela, “‘The Wise Mother’: The Image of St. Anne Teaching the Virgin Mary.” Gesta 32 (1993): 69–80.

Smith, Michael Quinton, “Another Iconographic Problem: Joachim and the Angel.” The Burlington Magazine 104 (1962): 110–13.


3.1 Manuscripts and Editions

3.1.1 Arabic

See also the entry for the Arabic Infancy Gospel.

Garitte, Gérard. “ ‘Protevangelii Jacobi’ versio arabica antiquior.” Mus 86 (1973): 377–96.

3.1.2 Armenian (BHO 611, 613, 614)

A   Venice, Mekhitarist Monastery of San Lazzaro, V203 (olim 985)

B   Venice, Mekhitarist Monastery of San Lazzaro, V223 (olim 1447)

C   Venice, Mekhitarist Monastery of San Lazzaro, V201 (olim 1014)

Conybeare, Frederick C. “Protevangelium Iacobi.” AJT 1 (1897): 424–42. English translation.

De Strycker, Émile. La Forme la plus ancienne du Protévangile de Jacques. SH 33. Bruxelles: Société des Bollandistes, 1961. Latin translations of A, B, and C pp. 439–73.

Tayec‘i, E. Ankanon girk‘ nor ktakaranac‘ (Libri spurii Noui Testamenti). 2 vols. Venice, 1898. Editio princeps of A, B, and C in vol. 2, pp. 237–67.

Terian, Abraham. The Armenian Gospel of the Infancy with Three Early Versions of the Protevangelium of James. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2008. New English translations of A, B, and C.

3.1.3 Coptic (BHO 615)

Fragments published by Forbes Robinson (Coptic Apocryphal Gospels. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1896) are now believed to belong to a Homily on the Virgin attributed to Cyril of Jerusalem.

3.1.4 Ethiopic (BHO 616)

Chaine, Marius. Apocrypha de Beata Maria Virgine. CSCO 39 Aeth. 22. Rome: K. de Luigi, 1909, 3–19.

3.1.5 Georgian

Garitte, G. “Le ‘Protévangile de Jacques’ en géorgien.” Mus 70 (1957): 233–65.

3.1.6 Greek (BHG 1046)

Cologny, Bodmer Library, Bodmer Miscellaneous Codex, P. Bodmer V (4th cent.)

Oxford, Ashmolean Museum, P. Ashmolean inv. 9 (4th cent.)

Florence, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, 13729 (PSI I 6) + 13730 (4th/5th cent.)

Cairo, Egyptian Museum, JE 85643 (SR 6P/1817) (4th cent.)

Bingen, J. “Protévangile de Jacques, XIII-XV (P. Ashmolean inv. 9).” ChrEg 80 (2005): 210–14. Editio princeps of the Oxford MS.

Pistelli, E. “Papiri evangelici.” Studi Religiosi 2 (1906): 129–40. Editio princeps of the Florence MS.

Wayment, Thomas A. The Text of the New Testament Apocrypha (100-400 CE). London: T&T Clark, 2013. Images and editions of all four early MSS, pp. 51–79.

Ladenheim, Alexander and Thomas A. Wayment. “A New Fragment of the Protevangelium Jacobi.” HTR 104 (2011): 381–84. Editio princeps  of the Cairo MS.

The Greek text of the Protevangelium exists in a daunting ca. 140 MSS. Most of these are catalogued in two doctoral dissertations from Duke University: Boyd Lee Daniels, “The Greek Manuscript Tradition of the Protevangelium Jacobi” (1956); and George T. Zervos, “Prolegomena to a Critical Edition of the Genesis Marias (Protevangelium Jacobi): The Greek Manuscripts” (1986). A definitive Greek critical edition of the text does not yet exist. Rather than list all of the MSS here, I present below the major Greek editions, in chronological order, with reference to the most significant MSS from which they draw.

Postel, Guillaume. Protevangelion, de seu de natalibus Iesu Christi et ipsius matris Virginis Mariae sermo historicus divi Iacobi Minoris. Evagelica historia quam scripsit B. Marcus. Vita Marei evengelistae collecta per Theodorum Bibliandrum. Basel: Ioannis Oporini, 1552. Latin translation of an unidentified Greek MS, presumed lost.

Neander, Michel, ed. Catechesis Martini Lutheri parva graeco-latina. Basel: Ioannis Oporinum, 1564. The first Greek edition of the Protevangelium published, based on an unnamed MS, pp. 356–92.

Fabricius, Johann Albert. Codex Apocryphus Novi Testamenti. 2 vols. Hamburg: Schiller, 1703. A reprint of Neander’s Greek text, divided into chapters and presented alongside Guillaume Postel’s 1552 Latin translation, vol. 1, pp. 66–125.

Grynaeus, Johann J. Monumenta S. Patrum Orthodoxographa, hoc est Theologiae sacrosanctae ac syncerioris fidei Doctores, numero circiter LXXXV. Basel: Henric Petrina, 1569. Reprint of Neander’s Greek text with accompanying Latin translation, pp. 71–84.

Jones, Jeremiah. A New and Full Method of settling the canonical authority of the New Testament. 3 vols. London: J. Clark and R. Hett, 1726/1927. 2nd ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1798. Reprint of Neander’s Greek text with accompanying English translation, vol. 2, pp. 86–109.

Birch, Andreas, ed. Auctarium codicis Apocryphi Novi Testamenti Fabriciani. Havniae: Arntzen & Hartier, 1804. The first “true” critical edition of the Greek text, which incorporated two Vatican MSS (gr. 455, 654) into Neander’s Greek text, pp. 197–242.

Fb  Vatican, Biblioteca apostolica, gr. 455 (11th cent.)

G  Vatican, Biblioteca apostolica, gr. 654 (12th cent.)

Thilo, Johannes Carolus, ed. Codex apocryphus Novi Testamenti. Leipzig: Vogel, 1832. A critical edition drawing from Neander/Fabricius, Birch’s two Vatican MSS (gr. 455, 654), and seven additional MSS.

C  Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, gr.  1454 (10th cent.)

D  Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, gr. 1215 (1068)

Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, gr. 1468 (11th cent.)

I  Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Cod. theol. gr. 123 (13th cent.)

L  Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, gr. 1190 (1567)

M  Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, gr. 1174 (12th cent.)

N  Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, gr. 1176 (13th cent.)

Giles, J. A. Codex Apocryphus Novi Testamenti: The Uncanonical Gospels and Other Writings. London: D. Nutt, 1852. Reprint of Thilo’s Greek text, pp. 33–47.

Tischendorf, Constantin von. Evangelia Apocrypha. Leipzig: Mendelssohn, 1853; 2nd ed. 1876. Builds on the editions of Birch and Thilo by incorporating eight additional MSS, pp. 1–49.

A  Venice, Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana, II, 82 (14th cent.)

B  Venice, Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana, 363 (12th cent.)

Venice, Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana, II, 20 (15th cent.)

K  Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Coisl. 152 (9th cent.)

Milan, Biblioteca Ambrosiana, A 63 inf. (=gr. 798) (11th cent.)

P  Milan, Biblioteca Ambrosiana, C 92 sup. (=gr. 192) (14th cent.)

Q  Venice, Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana, VII, 40 (16th cent.)

R  Dresden, Sächsische Landesbibliothek, A 187 (16th cent.)

Testuz, Michel. Papyrus Bodmer V: Nativité de Marie. Geneva: Bibliotheca Bodmeriana, 1958. A transcription of the late-third or early-fourth century Papyrus Bodmer V, discovered in 1952 and considered the oldest extant copy of the Protevangelium.

De Strycker, Émile. La Forme la plus ancienne du Protévangile de Jacques. SH 33. Bruxelles: Société des Bollandistes, 1961. The most extensive critical edition to date, which employs the Bodmer V MS as a base text and incorporates various Armenian, Coptic, Ethiopic, Georgian, Greek, and Latin witnesses.

Hock, Ronald F. The Infancy Gospels of James and Thomas. SB 2. Santa Rosa: Polebridge, 1995. A “hybrid” critical edition that draws from Tischendorf and, more significantly, de Strycker. Hock also incorporates P.Oxy. 3524, a sixth-century papyrus containing the penultimate verse and the epilogue of the Protevangelium. Hock’s edition is probably the most frequently cited in modern scholarly work on the Protevangelium.

Ehrman, Bart D. and Zlatko Plêse. The Apocryphal Gospels: Texts and Translations. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011. Reprint of de Strycker’s text, with only minor variations.

Additional Manuscripts:

Mount Sinai, St. Catherine’s Monastery, gr. 497, fols.  40v–48(10th/11th cent.)

Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Coislin 121,  fols. 8r–8v (1342/1343)

3.1.7 Latin

See also the entries for Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew, the Book about the Birth of the Savior, and the Nativity of Mary.

Aldama, Jose Antonio de. “Fragmentos de una versión latina del Protoevangelio de Santiago y una nueva adaptación de sus primeros capítulos.” Bib 43 (1962): 57–74.

Beyers, Rita. “Latin Translation of the Protevangelium of James in MS. Paris, Sainte-Geneviève, 2787.” Pages 881–957 in Apocrypha Hibernia I Evangelia Infantiae. Edited by Martin McNamara. Turnhout: Brepols, 2001.

de Strycker, Émile. “Une ancienne version latine de Protévangile de Jacques avec des extraits de la Vulgate de Matthieu 1-2 et Luc 1-2.” AnBoll (1965): 365–402.

Vattioni, F. “Frammento latino del Vangelo di Giacomo.” Aug 17 (1977): 505–509.

3.1.8 Slavonic

Lavrov, P. A. “Apocryphal Texts” (in Russian). Sbornik otdelenija russkago jazyka i slovenosti Imperstorskoj Akademii Nauk 67 (1899): 52–69.

Novakovic, S. “[The Apocryphal Proto-Gospel of James].” Starine 10 (1878): 61–71.

Otero, Aurelio de Santos. Die handschriftliche Überlieferung der altslavischen Apokryphen. 2 vols. PTS 20 and 23. Berlin: De Gruyter, 1978–1981 (manuscripts listed vol. 2 pp. 1–32).

Porfirjev, I. I. “[Apocryphal Sayings about New Testament People and Events in Manuscripts of the Solovetski Library].” Nauk 52 (1890): 10–13, 136–48.

Pypin, Alexander Nikolaevich. [False and Dismissed Books of Ancient Russia]. St. Petersburg, 1862.

Radovich, Natalino. Un frammento slavo del Protevangelio di Giacomo. Naples: 1st. Univ. Orientale, 1969. (Cod. glag. Lub. C 163a/2 II)

3.1.9 Syriac (BHO 612)

Cambridge University Library, Or. 1287 (fifth cent.)

London, British Library, Add. 14484 (6th cent.)

Göttingen, Universitätsbibliothek, syr. 10 (5th/6th cent.)

See also the manuscripts listed under Life of Mary (West Syriac) and History of the Virgin (East Syriac).

Baars, W. and J. Heldermann. “Neue Materielen zum Text und zur Interpretation des Kindheitsevangeliums des Pseudo-Thomas.” OrChr 77 (1993): 191–226; 78 (1994): 1–32. Includes description of Göttingen, Universitätsbibl., syr. 10 with a collation of the Infancy Gospel of Thomas material from the MS.

Budge, E. A. Wallis. The History of the Blessed Virgin Mary and the History of the Likeness of Christ. 2 vols. London: Luzac & Co., 1899. First publication of the East Syriac Life of Mary from two manuscripts.

Desreumaux, Alain. “Deux anciens manuscrits syriaques d’oeuvres apocryphes dans le nouveau fonds de Sainte-Catharine du Sinaï: La Vie de la Vierge et Les Actes d’André et Mathias.” Apocrypha 20 (2009): 115–36. Additional pages from Göttingen, Universitätsbibl., syr. 10 found at St. Catharine’s Monastery.

Smith Lewis, Agnes. Apocrypha Syriaca. The Protevangelium Jacobi and Transitus Mariae with Texts from the Septuagint, the Corân, the Peshitta, and from a Syriac Hymn in a Syro-Arabic Palimpsest of the fifth and other centuries. Studia Sinaitica 11. London: C. J. Clay, 1902. Editio princeps of Cambridge University Library, Or. 1287.

Wright, William. Contributions to the Apocryphal Literature of the New Testament. London: Williams & Norgate, 1865. Editio princeps of London, Brit. Libr., Add. 14484 with English

3.2 Modern Translations

3.2.1 English

Cameron, Ron. The Other Gospels: Noncanonical Gospel Texts. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1982. Reprint of Oscar Cullmann’s and A. J. B. Higgins’ 1963 translation of Papyrus Bodmer V, pp. 107–21.

Cowper, B. Harris. The Apocryphal Gospels and Other Documents Relating to the History of Christ. 4th ed. 1867. London: Frederic Norgate, 1874. Translation of Tischendorf’s 1876 Greek text, pp. 1–26.

Ehrman, Bart D. Lost Scriptures: Books that did not make it into the New Testament. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003. Translation of Émile de Strycker’s 1961 edition, pp. 63–72.

Ehrman, Bart D. and Zlatko Pleše. The Other Gospels: Accounts of Jesus from Outside the New Testament. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014. Translation of Émile de Strycker’s 1961 critical edition, pp. 18–36.

Elliott, J. K. The Apocryphal New Testament. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993. Translation of Tischendorf’s 1876 Greek text, pp. 48–67.

Hone, William. The Apocryphal New Testament. London: Ludgate Hille, 1820. Reprint of Jeremiah Jones’s translation of the Neander/Grynaeus Greek text, pp. 24–37.

James, M. R. The Apocryphal New Testament. 1924. Repr., Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1953. Translation of Tischendorf’s 1876 Greek text, pp. 38–49.

Jones, Jeremiah. A New and Full Method of Settling the Canonical Authority of the New Testament. 3 vols. 1726. Repr., Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1827. Translation of the Neander/Grynaeus Greek text; vol. 2, pp. 86–109.

Miller, Robert J. The Complete Gospels. Sonoma: Polebridge Press, 1992. Draft translation by Ronald F. Hock, pp. 373–89.

3.2.2. French

Amann, Émile. Le Protévangile de Jacques et ses remaniements latins: Introduction, textes, traduction et commentaire. Les apocryphes du Nouveau Testament. Paris: Letouzey et Ané, 1910.

Brunet, Pierre Gustav. Les évangiles apocryphes: Traduits et annotés d’après l’édition de J. C. Thilo. Paris: Franck, 1848. Translation of Thilo’s Greek text, pp. 111–137.

Frey, Albert. “Protévangile de Jacques.” Pages 71–104 in Écrits apocryphes chrétiens, vol. 1. Edited by François Bovon and Pierre Geoltrain. Paris: Gallimard, 1997.

Migne, Jacques-Paul. Dictionnaire des Apocryphes. 2 vols. 1856. Repr., Turnhout: Brepols, 1989. Translation of Tischendorf’s Greek text, , vol. 1, col. 1009–28.

3.2.3. German

Borberg, Karl Friedrich. Pages 11–56 in Bibliothek der neutestamentlichen Apokryphen, gesammelt, übersetzt, und erläutert. Stuttgart: Literatur-Comptoir, 1841.

Cullmann, Oscar. “Kindheistevangelien.” Pages 272–311 in Neutestamentliche Apokryphen in deutscher Übersetzung, Bd. 1. Evangelien und Verwandtes. Edited by Edgar Hennecke and Wilhelm Schneemelcher. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1959.  English translation: “Infancy Gospels.” Pages 363–417 in New Testament Apocrypha, Vol. 1, Gospels and Related Writings. Edited by Edgar Hennecke and Wilhelm Schneemelcher. Translated by R. McL. Wilson. 3rd ed. London: Luttersworth Press, 1963.

Cullmann, Oscar. “Kindheistevangelien.” Pages 330–72 in Neutestamentliche Apokryphen in deutscher Übersetzung, Bd. 1. Evangelien und Verwandtes. Edited by Wilhelm Schneemelcher. 6th ed. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1990. English translation: “Infancy Gospels.” Pages 414–69 in New Testament Apocrypha, Vol. 1, Gospels and Related Writings. Edited by Wilhelm Schneemelcher. Translated by R. McL. Wilson. Rev. ed. Louisville, Ky.: Westminster John Knox, 1991.

Meyer, Arnold. “Protevangelium des Jakobus.” Pages 106–31 in Handbuch zu den Neutestamentlichen Apockryphen. Edited by Edgar Hennecke. Tübingen: Mohr, 1904.

Michaelis, Wilhelm. Die Apocryphen Schriften zum Neuen Testament. 2d ed. Sammlung Dietrich 129. Bremen: Carl Schunemann, 1956. Translation of Tischendorf’s 1876 Greek text, pp. 62–95.

Pellegrini, Silvia. “Das Protevangelium des Jakobus.” Pages 903–29 in vol. 1.2 of Antike christliche Apokryphen in deutscher Übersetzung. Edited by Christoph Markschies and Jens Schröter. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2012.

3.2.4. Italian

Erbetta, Mario. Gli apocrifi del Nuovo Testamento. 3 vols. Italy: Marietti, 1975–1981, vol. 1.2, pp. 7–43.

Moraldi, Luigi. Apocrifi del Nuovo Testamento. 2 vols. Classici delle religioni, Sezione quarta, La religione cattolica 24. Turin: Unione Tipografico-Editrice Torinese, 1971, vol. 1, pp. 57–87.

Pistelli, Ermenengildo. Il Protevangelo di Jacopo. Lanciano: 1909. Translation of Tischendorf’s 1876 Greek text.

Rotunno, Clelia and Enrico Bartoletti. Il Protevangelo di Giacomo. Venice: Neri Pozza, 1950. Translation of Tischendorf’s 1876 Greek text.

3.2.5. Spanish

De Santos Otero, Aurelio. Pages 57–73 in Los Evangelios Apócrifos. 2nd ed. Madrid: Biblioteca de Autores Christianos, 1963.

3.3 General Works

Aldama, Jose Antonio de. “El Protoevangelio de Santiago y sus problemas.” Mar. 12 (1962): 107–30.

___________. “Polyplousios dans le Protévangile de Jacques et l’Adversus haereses d’Irénée.” RSR 50 (1962): 86–89.

___________. María en la patrística de los siglos I y II. Madrid: La Editorial Católica, 1970.

___________. “Un nuevo testigo indirecto del Protoevangelio de Santiago.” Studia Patristica 12 (1975): 79–82.

Allen, John L. “The ‘Protevangelium of James’ as an ‘Historia’: The Insufficiency of the ‘Infancy Gospel’ Category.” Pages 508–17 in Society of Biblical Literature 1991 Seminar Papers. SBLSP 30. Atlanta, GA: Scholars Press, 1991.

Ashley, Kathleen and Pamela Sheingorn, eds. Interpreting Cultural Symbols: Saint Anne in Late Medieval Society. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1990.

Avner, Rina. “The Initial Celebration of the Theotokos at the Kathisma: Earliest Celebrations and the Calendar.” Pages 9–29 in The Cult of the Mother of God in Byzantium: Texts and Images. Edited by Leslie Brubaker and Mary B. Cunningham. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2011.

Backus, Irena. “Guillaume Postel, Théodore Bibiander et le ‘Protévangile de Jacques’.” Apocrypha 6 (1995): 7–65.

Bacon, Benjamin W., Andrew C. Zenos et al. “The Supernatural Birth of Jesus.” AJT 10 (1906): 1–30.

Barker, Margaret. Christmas: The Original Story. London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 2008.

Bauckham, Richard. Jude and the Relatives of Jesus in the Early Church. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1990.

___________. “Salome the Sister of Jesus, Salome the Disciple of Jesus, and the Secret Gospel of Mark.” NovT 33 (1991): 245–75.

Bauer, Walter. Das Leben Jesu im Zeitalter der neutestamentlichen Apokryphen. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1967.

Benko, Stephen. “The Magnificat: A History of the Controversy.” JBL 86 (1967): 263–75.

___________. The Virgin Goddess: Studies in the Pagan and Christian Roots of Mariology. Studies in the History of Religions 59. Leiden: Brill, 1993.

Berendts, Alexander. Studien über Zacharias-Apokryphen und Zacharias-Legenden. Leipzig: Georg Böhme, 1895.

Beyers, Rita. “ ‘De Nativitate Mariae’ : problèmes d’origine.” RTP 122 (1990): 171–88.

___________. “Dans l’atelier des compilateurs: Remarques à propos de la Compilation latine de l’enfance.” Apocrypha 16 (2005): 97–135.

Bouwsma, William J. Concordia Mundi: The Career and Thought of Guillaume Postel, 1510–1581. Harvard Historical Monographs. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1957.

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