Acts of Thomas

Acta Thomae

Other titles: Acts of Judas Thomas, Acts and Consummation of the Holy Apostle Thomas

Standard abbreviation: Acts Thom.

Clavis numbers: CANT 245; BHG 1800–1831k; BHGa 1800–1831z; BHO 1186–1227; BHL 8136–8146

Category: Apocryphal Acts

Related literature (most often revisions or abbreviations of the Acts): Minor Acts of Thomas, Passion of Thomas (Passio, included in the Acts, but often stands alone); Preaching of Thomas (Praedicatio); Miracles of Thomas (Miraculo), Virtutes Thomae

Compiled by Jonathan Henry, Princeton University (jhenry@princeton.edu)

Citing this resource (using Chicago Manual of Style): Henry, Jonathan. “Acts of Thomas.” e-Clavis: Christian Apocrypha. Accessed DAY MONTH YEAR. http://www.nasscal.com/e-clavis-christian-apocrypha/acts-of-thomas/.

1. SUMMARY

The Acts of Thomas narrates the apostle Thomas’s miracles and preaching as he makes his way across India. The narratives are often a simple nature, and are supplemented by extended homilies, prayers, songs, and blessings. The number and extent of these spoken materials has attracted numerous additional materials to be added, of which the Hymn of the Pearl is the best known. The first act. The apostles divide the world amongst themselves, but Thomas refuses to go to India as instructed. Thomas’s Lord, Jesus, sells him to the merchant Habban, who promises to take him to be a craftsman for King Gudnaphar in India. En route, Thomas and Habban participate in a wedding banquet for a king’s daughter, at which Thomas sings a song about the church. Here he is assaulted by a cupbearer who then subsequently perishes for his treatment of the apostle, after which time a Hebrew flute player and some of the guests become convinced to listen to Thomas. Because of this, the king hears of Thomas, and he invites the apostle to pray for the bride-to-be and her groom in the bridal chamber. Jesus assumes the form of Thomas and preaches to the bride and groom; they convert, and do not engage in intercourse during the night. At first the king is angry for the conversion of his daughter to an encratic view of marriage, and he wishes to punish the apostle as a sorcerer, but he has already begun to move further into India. Later, however, numerous converts follow the message of Thomas, and journey to join him. The second act. The merchant Habban and Thomas reach their destination, and Habban delivers Thomas to King Gudnaphar to be his craftsman. The king tasks Thomas with building him a new palace, but Thomas instead distributes the building funds to charity. The king imprisons Thomas and Habban, but when the king’s brother Gad dies, he discovers that Thomas has actually built the king a palace in heaven. Gad is sent back to earth, and discloses the miracle to Gudnaphar, whereupon both of them are converted and celebrate the Eucharist with Thomas and others. The third act. Thomas and his companions discover a young man who has been slain by a wicked serpent. At the insistence of Thomas, the snake reveals his demonic identity. Thomas then requires the serpent to suck his own poison out of the dead youth, which results in the death of the serpent and the resurrection of the boy. The act closes with songs of praise and sermons on the benefits of the encratic life. The fourth act. A donkey approaches Thomas and asks to bear him into the city. At the request of Thomas, the donkey reveals its lineage from Balaam’s ass and the donkey that bore Jesus into Jerusalem. After Thomas rides the beast into the city, it dies, having fulfilled its purpose. The fifth act. In the city, Thomas meets a woman who has been tormented by an amorous demon for five years. Thomas casts out the demon, the woman and others are converted, and the new converts celebrate the Eucharist. The sixth act. Thomas meets a young man whose hands shriveled up when he took the Eucharist, and learns that this happened because he had murdered a woman who refused to forsake sexual activity. Thomas causes the woman to return from the grave, and she narrates the horrors of hell. Hymnic and sermonic discourses by Thomas follow these narrative events. The seventh act. A military captain named Sifur asks Thomas to heal his wife and daughter, both of whom have been miserably oppressed by demons for three years. Thomas appoints a deacon and offers public prayers, and then leaves with Sifur. The eighth act. The animals carrying Thomas and Sifur become too exhausted to pull their carriage, and Thomas enlists the aid of a herd of wild asses. Thomas sends one of the asses into Sifur’s home to exorcise the demons; the women become unresponsive. Thomas begins to carry out a discussion with the demons, one of which had previously been exorcised by Thomas. The ass and Thomas deliver hymns and exhortations, and Thomas in the end raises up the women and sends the asses back outside the city. The ninth act. A noblewoman named Mygdonia becomes convinced by the preaching of Thomas, and refuses to lie with Karish, her husband. Karish, concerned that Thomas is a sorcerer who has placed an enchantment over his wife, has the apostle brought before King Mazdai. Thomas is thrown in prison and sentenced to death. Two manuscripts (Vallicellanus B 35 and British Library Add. 14, 645) insert the Hymn of the Pearl at this point. Karish returns home to Mygdonia, and discovers that these actions have not cured her. The tenth act. Mygdonia continues to pursue another audience with Thomas, who comes to her and her nurse Narkia in secret; he baptizes them both, and they celebrate the Eucharist. Mazdai and Karish continue to threaten Thomas, but nothing changes Mygdonia’s heart. Thomas baptizes and celebrates the Eucharist with Sifur and his household. The eleventh act. Mazdai tells Tertia, his wife, to visit Mygdonia to convince her to take up her former way of life. Instead, Tertia is converted, and returns to Mazdai with the desire to convert him to Thomas’s way of life. Mazdai and Karish again arrest Thomas. The twelfth act. The king commands his son, Vizan, to manage the soldiers guarding Thomas. Vizan is convinced by Thomas’s message, and seeks to help Thomas escape. Mazdai, enraged, commands that Thomas be tortured with heated iron plates, but a flood of water erupts to protect Thomas from harm. When the water threatens to inundate the palace, the king begs Thomas to stop the flooding. Thomas is returned to prison, and he offers speeches and prayers of farewell. The thirteenth act and the Martyrdom of Thomas. Vizan asks Thomas to heal his wife, Manashar, with whom he has lived in chastity. Thomas heals her, and with everyone collected in Vizan’s house, the couple are baptized. Thomas returns to prison, and has one final confrontation with Mazdai. Mazdai commands that Thomas be taken outside of the city and put to death. After prayers and speeches (and after appointing Sifur to be a priest and Vizan to be a deacon), Thomas is executed by soldiers with spears, and is buried in the tombs occupied by ancient kings. An apparition of Thomas appears to Sifur and Vizan and encourages them to return to the city. Mazdai and Karish continue to afflict their wives, but do not persuade them to abandon chastity. Later, Mazdai’s son is afflicted by a demon, and a vision of Thomas tells Mazdai that he can be cured. Mazdai employs dust from the place where Thomas’s bones had previously rested as the cure for his son. Mazdai is convinced, and joins the others who had previously converted.

Named historical figures and characters: Abban, Adam (patriarch), Andrew (apostle), Balaam, Bartholomew (apostle), Caiaphas, Cain, Charisius, Esau, Eve (matriarch), Gad (brother of king Gundaphorus), Gundaphorus, Herod Antipas, James (son of Alphaeus), James (son of Zebedee), Jesus Christ, John (son of Zebedee), Judas (Iscariot), Judas (son of James), Marcia, Mary (Virgin), Matthew (apostle), Misdaeus, Mnesara, Mygdonia, Peter (apostle), Pharaoh (of Exodus), Philip (apostle), Simon (the Canaanite), Siphor, Tertia, Thomas (apostle), Vazan, Xenophon.

Places: Andrapolis (Sandaruk), Bethlehem, India, Jerusalem, Mesopotamia.

Places named only in the Hymn of the Pearl: Babylon, Beth Ellaye, Beth Kushan, Egypt, Gazak, Hyrkania, India, Maishan, Parthia, Sarbug.

2. RESOURCES

2.1.1 Online Resources: Text Resources

Note: The majority of open access resources online continue to rely on outdated ideas about the formation of early Christianity, gnosis, and the apocryphal acts.

“Acts of Thomas.” Early Christian Writings.

“Acts of Thomas.” New World Encyclopedia.

“Acts of Thomas.” Wikipedia.

“Gondophares.” Encyclopedia Iranica.

“Hymn of the Pearl.” Encyclopedia Iranica.

“The Acts of Thomas.” The Gnostic Library Society. Reprint of introduction and translation by M. R. James.

del Cerro, Gonzalo. Cristianismo e Historia (A series of blog posts on the text’s structure, contents (life of Thomas), and chronology, and a general introduction.

2.1.2 Online Resources: Media

Ehrman, Bart. “The Acts of Thomas.” Lost Christianities, Lecture 14. Online here.

“Inside India’s Ancient Christian Community,” March 27, 2017. Part of the CNN series “Finding Jesus.” Online here.

Librivox audio recording of Bernard Pick’s English translation. Online here.

2.2 Adaptations

2.2.1 Homilies and Sermons

Many editors refashioned the Acts of Thomas in metaphrastic, abbreviated, homiletical, and other versions. Of particular interest are those that are known to use some format of written text. Some noteworthy instances are listed here.

Casiday, Augustine. “Royal Virgins: Aldhelm of Malmesbury’s Use of the Passio Sancti Thomae.” Pages 301–306 in Studia Patristica 39: Papers Presented at the Fourteenth International Conference on Patristic Studies held in Oxford 2003. Edited by F. Young, M. Edwards, and P. Parvis. Leuven: Peeters, 2006.

Schimitz, Bertram. “Das Indienbild in der Syrischen Thomasliteratur – The Three Poems of Jacob of Sarug about the Apostle Thomas in India.” The Harp 8-9 (1995–1996): 105–16.

Skeat, Walter W., ed. Ælfric’s Lives of Saints. Being a set of sermons on saints’ days formerly observed by the English Church. Vol. 1. Early English Text Society Original Series 76 and 82. London: N. Trübner & Co., 1881–1885.

__________, ed. Ælfric’s Lives of Saints. Being a set of sermons on saints’ days formerly observed by the English Church. Vol. 2. Early English Text Society Original Series 94 and 114. London: N. Trübner & Co., 1890–1900.

Strothmann, Werner. “Die Thomasgedichte des Jakob von Sarug.” Pages 363–67 in XVII. Deutscher Orientalistentag vom 21. bis 27. Juli 1968 in Würzburg: Vorträge. Teil 2. Edited by Wolfgang Voigt. ZDMGSup 1.2. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner, 1969.

In post-Reformation Europe, interest in sources for the itinerary of Thomas may be seen in sermons and tractates, e.g., Thomas Stapleton, Tres Thomae (Douai, 1588). In the East, anaphorae, sermons, prayers, and hymns continued unabated into the modern age.

2.2.2 Hymn of the Pearl

The Hymn has enjoyed great attention, and in modern times seems to have eclipsed the rest of the Acts of Thomas in the popular and scholarly imagination, as may be seen by the diverse media represented here:

Bly, Robert. “The Hymn of the Pearl.” Speech at the Minnesota Men’s Conference, 1993.

Hogrogian, Nonny. The Pearl: Hymn of the Robe of Glory. Aurora, OR: Two Rivers Press, 1979. (Children’s picture book; sample page here.)

Tian, Leilei. The Hymn of the Pearl. Piece for five instruments and electronics, commissioned by Sond’Ar-te Electric Ensemble, Portugal, 2011.

3. BIBLIOGRAPHY

3.1 Manuscripts and Editions

3.1.1 Arabic

Ernst, Carl W. “Fragmentary Versions of the Apocryphal ‘Hymn of the Pearl’ in Arabic, Turkish, Persian, and Urdu.” Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam 32 (2006): 144–88.

Graf, Georg. Geschichte der christlichen arabischen Literatur. Vol. 1. 5 vols. Rome: Biblioteca apostolica Vaticana, 1944 (p. 264).

Lewis, Agnes Smith, ed. Acta Mythologica Apostolorum, Transcribed from an Arabic Ms. in the Convent of Deyr-es-Suriani, Egypt, and from Mss. in the Convent of St Catherine, on Mount Sinai. Horae Semiticae 3. London: C.J. Clay and Sons, 1904. (Arabic text, pp. 3–11).

Sauget, J. – M. “Reconstitution d’un manuscrit double originaire du Tūr ‘Abdīn et actuellement dépecé: Sbath 125 + Mingana syriaque 88.” Atti della Accademia nazionale dei Lincei, Anno 378 (1976): 358–439.

van Esbroeck, Michel. “Les Actes apocryphes de Thomas en version arabe.” Parole de l’Orient 14 (1987): 11–77.

3.1.2 Armenian

Garitte, Gérard. “Le martyre géorgien de l’apôtre Thomas.” Le Muséon 83 (1970): 497–532.

__________. “La passion arménienne de S. Thomas l’apôtre et son modèle grec.” Le Muséon 84 (1971): 171–95.

Leloir, Louis. “Rapports entre les versions arménienne et syriaque des Actes apocryphes des Apôtres.” Pages 137–48 in Symposium Syriacum, 1976: célebré du 13 au 17 septembre 1976 au Centre Culturel “Les Fontaines” de Chantilly (France). Edited by François Graffin and Antoine Guillaumont. OrChrAn 205. Rome: Pontificium Institutum Orientalium Studiorum, 1978.

__________. “Le baptême du roi Gundaphor.” Le Muséon 100 (1987): 225–33.

Tchérakian, Chérubin. Ankanon girkh arakhelakankh: Thankgaran haykakan hin ew nor deprutheankh. Venice: Òazar, 1904.

3.1.3 Coptic

Cherix, P. Manuscrits coptes et textes apocryphes: Liste de travail provisoire. Copticherix-AELAC, 2014. (See pp. 25–26 for manuscripts of the Predication and Martyre. Cf. pg. 43, Frag/0 US-PM, New York, Pierp. Morg. Libr. 668 [10]).

Devos, Paul. “La prédication et le martyre de S. Thomas en copte.” AnBoll Bollandiana 101 (1983): 386.

Lucchesi, Enzo. “Additamentum ad Martyrium s. Thomae apostoli coptice.” AnBoll 106 (1988): 319–22.

Poirier, Paul-Hubert, ed. La version copte de la Prédication et du Martyre de Thomas. Subsidia Hagiographica 67. Brussels: Société des Bollandistes, 1984.

Revillout, E. Les apocryphes coptes. Vol. 1. PO 2 (1904): 197–98.

3.1.4 Ethiopic

Budge, Ernest A. W. Gadla Ḥawâryât: The Contendings of the Apostles, Being the Lives and Martyrdoms and Deaths of the Twelve Apostles and Evangelists. Vol. 1 (Ethiopic). London: Henry Frowde, 1901.

__________. Gadla Ḥawâryât: The Contendings of the Apostles, Being the Lives and Martyrdoms and Deaths of the Twelve Apostles and Evangelists. Vol. 2 (English translations). London: Henry Frowde, 1901.

Fiaccadori, Gianfranco. “Tommaso in Etiopia.” SCO 34 (1984): 298–307.

Malan, Solomon C. The Conflicts of the Holy Apostles, An Apocryphal Book of the Early Eastern Church. London: D. Nutt, 1871.

3.1.5 Georgian

Garitte, G. “Le Martyre géorgian de l’apôtre Thomas.” Le Muséon 83 (1970): 497–532.

Vashalomidze, G. Sophia. “The Apostle Thomas in Georgian Narratives.” The Harp 25 (2010): 79–136.

3.1.6 Greek

Bonnet, Max, ed. Acta Thomae graece partim cum novis codicibus contulit partim primus edidit, latine recensuit. Supplementum Codicis Apocryphi 1. Lipsiae: Hermann Mendelssohn, 1883.

Bonnet, Max. “Acts of the Holy Apostle Thomas” [Greek]. Pages 99–291 in vol. 2:2 of Acta apostolorum apocrypha. 2 vols. in 3 parts. Edited by Richard A. Lipsius and Max Bonnet. Leipzig: Mendelssohn, 1889–1903; reprinted Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1959; reprinted by the same in 1972.

The manuscripts as given in Bonnet’s critical edition are as follows:

A  Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, gr. 881 (10th cent.)

B  Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, gr. 1468, 91r– 95r (11th cent.)

Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, gr. 1454 (10th cent.)

Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, gr. 1176, 66r–203r (12th/13th cent.)

Rome, Biblioteca Angelica, B 2.2 (11th cent.)

Escorial, Real Biblioteca, fonds principal Υ. II. 09 (Andrés 264) (11th cent.)

H  Escorial, Real Biblioteca, fonds principal, Y. II. 06 (Andrés 314) (12th cent.).

K  Vatican, Biblioteca Apostolica, Chig. (Chisianum) R. VII. 051 (gr. 42) (12th cent.)

Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, gr. 764 (9th cent.)

Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Cod. graec. 262 (9th cent.)

Oxford, Bodleian Library, Clarke 43 (11th cent.)

Bibliothèque nationale de France, gr. 1510 (11/12th cent.)

Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, gr. 1485 (10/11th cent.)

Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, gr. 1551 (14th cent.)

Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, gr. 1613 (15th cent.)

Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, gr. 1540 (11th cent.)

Rome, Biblioteca Vallicellanum, B 35 (11th cent.)

Vatican,  Biblioteca Apostolica, gr. 1190 (15th cent.)

Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, gr. 1173 A (12th cent.)

Vatican,  Biblioteca apostolica, gr. 797 (11th cent.)

Russian National Library/Rossijskaja Nacional’naja biblioteka (RNB) (St. Petersburg) Ф. № 906 (Gr.) 094 (Granstrem 334) (12th cent.)

Additional Manuscripts:

Antissa, Monastery of St. John the Theologian, 38

Antissa, Monastery of St. John the Theologian, 57

Athens, National Library of Greece, fonds principal 284, fols. 499v–516v (1599)

Athens, National Library of Greece, fonds principal 346, fols. 71r–76r (1497–1498)

Athens, National Library of Greece, fonds principal 1027, fols. 53r–58v (12th cent.)

Athens, National Library of Greece, fonds principal 2504, fols. 14r–42r (12th cent.)

Brussels, Bibliothèque Royale Albert Ier, II.02407 (504), fols. 12r–23r (11th cent.)

Drama, Monê Kosinitsês, 368 (12th cent.)

Dublin, Trinity College, 0185 (E.3.35), fols. 45r–49v (11th cent.)

Gjirokastër, Bibliothêke tês Mêtropoleôs, 5, fols. 30r–36r (17th cent.)

Izmir [Evangelical School] A-04 [ms. destroyed in the fire of 1922]

Jerusalem, Bibliotheke tou Patriarchou, Saba 22

Jerusalem, Bibliotheke tou Patriarchou, Saba 373

Jerusalem, Bibliotheke tou Patriarchou, Panaghiou Taphou 66

Krakow, Uniwersytet Jagielloński, Biblioteka Jagiellońska Berlin, graec. 1°.43.I (279)

London, British Library, Add. 10014

Meteora, Monê Metamorphôseôs, 81

Meteora, Monê Metamorphôseôs, 382

Mezzojuso, Biblioteca dell’Istituto “A. Reres” 2 (Mioni 95)

Mezzojuso, Biblioteca dell’Istituto “A. Reres” 2 (Mioni 95)

Michigan, University of Michigan Library, Special Collections Library, 36

Milan, Biblioteca Ambrosiana, A 063 inf. (Martini-Bassi 798)

Moscow, Gosudarstvennyj Istoričeskij Musej, Sinod. gr.162 (Vlad. 380)

Moscow, Gosudarstvennyj Istoričeskij Musej, Sinod. gr.303 (Vlad. 395)

Mount Athos, Bibliothêke tou Prôtatou (Karues), 002 (Lambros 2), fols. 67r–71r (11th cent.)

Mount Athos, Monê Esphigmenou, 044 (Lambros 2057), fols. 22v–30r (12/13th cent.)

Mount Athos, Monê Ibêrôn, 0275 (Lambros 4395) (12th cent.)

Mount Athos, Monê Ibêrôn, 0476 (Lambros 4596)

Mount Athos, Monê Karakallou, 008 (Lambros 1521), Mon. 048 (10/11th cent.)

Mount Athos, Monê Koutloumousiou, 056 (Lambros 3125), fols. 64v–94v

Mount Athos, Monê Koutloumousiou, 684 (Polites 110), fols. 9v–15v (14th cent.)

Mount Athos, M. Megistes Lavras, Δ 050 (Eustratiades 0426)

Mount Athos, M. Megistes Lavras, Δ 050 (Eustratiades 0426)

Mount Athos, M. Megistes Lavras, Η 206 (Eustratiades 0861)

Mount Athos, Pantokratoros 040 (Lambros 1074)

Mount Athos, Philotheou 009 (Lambros 1772)

Mount Sinai, St. Catherine’s Monastery, gr. 497, fols. 115v–129r (10th/11th cent.)

Ohrid, Naroden Muzej, 004 (Mošin 76)

Oxford, Bodleian Library, Barocci 180

Oxford, Bodleian Library, Holkham gr. 027

Oxford, Bodleian Library, Laud gr. 68

Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Coisl. 121, fols. 9r–10v (1342/1343)

Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, gr. 1556

Rome, Biblioteca Angelica, gr. 108

St. Petersburg, Russian National Library/Rossijskaja Nacional’naja biblioteka, Ф. № 906 (Gr.) 213 (Granstrem 283)

Sofia, Ecclesiastical Historical and Archival Institute of the Patriarchate of Bulgaria (C’rkovno-istoričeskija i archiven Institut) 805

Vatican,  Biblioteca Apostolica, Ottob. gr. 1

Vatican,  Biblioteca Apostolica, gr. 544

Vatican,  Biblioteca Apostolica, gr. 866, fols. 38r–40r (11th/12th cent.)

Vatican,  Biblioteca Apostolica, gr.1238

Vatican,  Biblioteca Apostolica, gr. 1608

Vatican,  Biblioteca Apostolica, gr. 1608

Vatican,  Biblioteca Apostolica, gr. 1985

Venice, Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana gr. VII. 039 (coll. 1386)

Giles, J. A., Johann Karl Thilo, and Johann Albert Fabricius. Codex Apocryphus Novi Testamenti. The Uncanonical Gospels and Other Writings, Referring to the First Ages of Christianity; in the Original Languages: Collected Together from the Editions of Fabricius, Thilo, and Others. London: D. Nutt, 1852 (pp. 220–55).

Lake, Kirsopp. “A Fragment of the Acta Thomae.” Pages 89–185 in Texts from Mount Athos. Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica 5. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1903. (edition of Mount Athos, Monê Ibêrôn, 476).

Lipinski, Matthias. Konkordanz zu den Thomasakten. Athenäums Monografien: Theologie 67. Frankfurt am Main: Athenäum, 1985.

Thilo, Johannes Carolus, ed. Acta S. Thomae apostoli ex codd. pariss. primum edidit et adnotationibus illustravit. Lipsiae: F.C.G. Vogelii, 1823. (Greek edition based on MSS A, B, C, D).

3.1.7 Latin

Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, lat. 5327, fol. 188v) (10th cent.)

Bernard, Philippe. “Un passage perdu dans Acta Thomae latins conservé dans une anaphore mérovingienne.” RBén 107:1–2 (1997): 24–39.

Bonnet, Max, ed. Acta Thomae graece partim cum novis codicibus contulit partim primus edidit, latine recensuit. Supplementum Codicis Apocryphi 1. Lipsiae: Hermann Mendelssohn, 1883 (pp. 96–160).

Dold, A. and Leo Eizenhöfer. Das irische Palimpsestsakramentar in Clm 14429 der Staatsbibliothek München. Beuron: Beuroner Kunstverlag, 1964. (Contains a Latin version of an epiclesis, with commentary.)

Fabricius, Johann Karl. Codex apocryphus Novi Testamenti. 3 vols. in 2 parts; Hamburg: Schiller and Kisner, 1719–1746. (vol. 2 pp. 687–736; and pp. 819–28 [Pseudo-Abdias]).

Zelzer, Klaus. “Zu den lateinischen Fassungen der Thomasakten.” Wiener Studien 84 (1971): 161–79; 85 (1972): 185–212.

__________.  Die alten Lateinischen Thomasakten. Texte und Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der Altchristlichen Literatur 122. Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 1977.

__________. “Zu Datierung und Verfasserfrage der lateinischen Thomasakten,” Studia Patristica 13 (1975): 190–94.

3.1.8 Slavonic

Dimitrova, Margaret and Andrej Bojadžiev. “Acta Thomae in Late Damaskinar Manuscripts.” Онгъл 4 (2012): 110–21. (Deals with both medieval and modern Bulgarian translations.)

Velčeva, Boryana and Andrej Bojadžiev. “The Slavonic Text of Acta Thomae in India.” Scripta & e-Scripta 3–4 (2005–2006): 95–119.

3.1.9 Syriac (GEDSH 554 [cf. 410]; Baumstark, Geschichte, 14)

B  Berlin, Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin, Sachau 222 (1881)

C  Cambridge, Cambridge University Library, Add. 2822 (19th cent.)

L  London, British Library, Add. 14,645 (936)

M  Mosul 86 (1711-1712)

S  Mount Sinai, St. Catherine’s Monastery, 30 (5th/6th cent.)

Alqoš, Notre Dame des Semences, Sher 112/Vosté 214

Cambridge Mass., Harvard Houghton Library, Syr. 38

Vatican, Biblioteca apostolica, Syr. 597, fols. 1r–8v (17th cent.)

Briquel-Chatonnet, Françoise and Desreumaux, Alain and Thekeparampil, Jacob. “Découvre d’un manuscrit très important contenant des textes apocryphes dans la bibliothèque de la métropolie de l’Église de l’Est à Trichur, Kérala, Inde.” Pages 587–97 in Symposium Syriacum VII: Uppsala University, Department of Asian and African Languages, 11–14 August 1996. Edited by René Lavenant. OrChrAn 256. Roma: Pontificio Istituto Orientale, 1998.

Bedjan, Paul, ed. Acta martyrum et sanctorum Syriace: Tomus Tertius. Paris and Leipzig: Harrassowitz, 1890–1897; reprinted Hildesheim: Olms, 1968 (vol. 3 pp. 1–175; uses B and L).

Burkitt, Francis Crawford. “Fragments of the Acts of Judas Thomas from the Sinaitic Palimpsest.” Pages 23–44 in Select Narratives of Holy Women from the Syro-Antiochene or Sinai Palimpsest as Written above the Old Syriac Gospels by John the Stylite, of Beth-Mari-Qanûn in A.D. 778. Edited by Agnes Smith Lewis. Studia Sinaitica 9–10. London: C.J. Clay and Sons, 1900.

Desreumaux, Alain. “Textes nouveaux extraits de manuscrits syriaques du Kérala (partie I).” Христианский Восток 1 [7] (1999): 26-37.

Jansma, Taeke, ed. A Selection from the Acts of Judas Thomas. Leiden: Brill, 1952.

Wright, William, ed. Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles, Edited from Syriac Manuscripts in the British Museum and Other Libraries. 2 vols. London, Edinburgh: Williams & Norgate, 1871. Volume 1 is Syriac text, volume 2 is English translation.

Zemler, John David. “The Syriac Acts of Thomas: A Computerized Grammatical Concordance of Acts 1 and 2.” Ph.D. dissertation, Marquette University, 2003.

3.3 Modern Translations

3.3.1 English

Attridge, Harold. The Acts of Thomas. Early Christian Apocrypha 3. Salem, OR: Polebridge Press, 2010.

Bornkamm, Gunther. “Acts of Thomas—Introduction and Translation.” Pages 425–531 in New Testament Apocrypha, vol. 2: Writings Related to the Apostles, Apocalypses and Related Subjects. Edited by Edgar Hennecke and Wilhelm Schneemelcher. Translated by Robert McL. Wilson. English translation of the 3rd German edition. London: Luttersworth Press, 1963.

Drijvers, Han J. W. “Acts of Thomas—Introduction and Translation.” Pages 322–411 in New Testament Apocrypha. vol. 2: Writings Related to the Apostles, Apocalypses and Related Subjects. Edited by Wilhelm Schneemelcher. Translated by Robert McL. Wilson. English translation of the 5th German edition, revised. Louisville: Westminster/John Knox, 1991.

Elliott, J. K. The Apocryphal New Testament: A Collection of Apocryphal Christian Literature in English Translation. Oxford: Clarendon, 1993 (pp. 439–511).

James, Montague Rhodes. The Apocryphal New Testament: Being the Apocryphal Gospels, Acts, Epistles, and Apocalypses. Oxford: Clarendon, 1924; corrected edition, 1953 (pp. 364–438).

Klijn, Albertus F. J. Acts of Thomas: Introduction – Text – Commentary. NovTSup 5. 2nd ed. Leiden: Brill, 2003 (includes an original English translation).

Lewis, Agnes Smith. Acta Mythologica Apostolorum Transcribed from an Arabic Ms. in the Convent of Deyr-es-Suriani, Egypt, and from Mss. in the Convent of St Catherine on Mount Sinai and in the Vatican Library. Horae Semiticae 4. London: C.J. Clay and Sons, 1904 (English translation, pp. 11–25).

Pick, Bernhard. The Apocryphal Acts of Paul, Peter, John, Andrew and Thomas. Chicago: Open Court Publishing Co., 1909.

Walker, Alexander. Apocryphal Gospels, Acts and Revelations. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1873. Repr. as vol. 16 of The Ante-Nicene Christian Library. Edited by Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson. 24 vols. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1867–1883 (translations of “The Acts of the Holy Apostle Thomas” and “The Consummation of Thomas the Apostle,” pp. 389-428).

Wright, William, ed. Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles, Edited from Syriac Manuscripts in the British Museum and Other Libraries. 2 vols. London/Edinburgh: Williams & Norgate, 1871 (English translation, vol. 2, 147–298).

3.3.2 French

Festugière, André-Jean. Les actes apocryphes de Jean et de Thomas. Cahiers d’Orientalisme 6. Genève: Patrick Cramer, 1983.

Poirier, Paul-Hubert and Tissot, Yves. “Actes de Thomas.” Pages 1321–470 in Écrits apocryphes chrétiens. Vol. 1. Edited by in François Bovon and Pierre Geoltrain. Bibliothèque de la Pléiade 442. Paris: Gallimard, 1997.

3.3.3 German

Bornkamm, Günther. “Thomasakten.” Pages 297–372 in Neutestamentliche Apokryphen in deutscher Übersetzung. Vol 2: Apostolisches, Apokalypsen und Verwandtes. E. Hennecke. Edited by Wilhelm Schneemelcher. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1964.

Drijvers, Han J. W. “Thomasakten.” Pages 289–367 in Neutestamentliche Apokryphen in deutscher Übersetzung. Vol 2: Apostolisches, Apokalypsen und Verwandtes. E. Hennecke. Edited by Wilhelm Schneemelcher. 5th German edition. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1989.

Raabe, Richard. “Thomasakten.” Pages 256–89 in Neutestamentlichen Apokryphen. Edited by Edgar Hennecke. 2d ed. Tübingen: J. C. B. Mohr, 1924.

Schimmelpfeng, Georg. “Thomasakten.” Pages 473–544 in Neutestamentliche Apokryphen in deutscher Übersetzung. Edited by Edgar Hennecke. Tübingen: J. C. B. Mohr, 1904.

3.3.4 Italian

Erbetta, Mario. Gli apocrifi del Nuovo Testamento. 3 vols. Italy: Marietti, 1975–1981 (translations of “Gli Atti di Tommaso,” pp. 307–71 and  “Martiro del santo ed illustre apostolo Tommaso,” pp. 371–74 in vol. 2).

Moraldi, Luigi. Apocrifi del Nuovo Testamento. 2 vols. Classici delle religioni, Sezione quarta, La religione cattolica 24. Turin: Unione Tipografico-Editrice Torinese, 1971 (vol. 2, pp. 303–428).

3.3.5 Spanish

Piñero, Antonio and Gonzalo del Cerro, eds. Hechos apócrifos de los Apóstoles. 2 vols. Madrid: Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos, 2004–2005 (vol. 1, pp. 863–1199).

3.3.6 Latin*

*translations made when Latin functioned as scholarly lingua franca.

Thilo, Johannes Carolus, ed. Acta S. Thomae apostoli ex codd. pariss. primum edidit et adnotationibus illustravit. Lipsiae: F.C.G. Vogelii, 1823.

Fabricius, Johann Karl. Codex apocryphus Novi Testamenti. 3 vols. in 2 parts; Hamburg: Schiller and Kisner, 1719–1746. (vol. 2 pp. 687–736; and pp. 819–28 [Pseudo-Abdias]).

3.4 Concordances

Lipinski, Matthias. Konkordanz zu den Thomasakten. Frankfurt am Main: Athenäum, 1988.

3.5 General Works

3.5.1 Apocryphal Acts

Achtemeier, Paul. “Jesus and the Disciples as Miracle Workers in the Apocryphal New Testament.” Pages 149–86 in Aspects of Religious Propaganda in Judaism and Early Christianity. Edited by Elisabeth Shüssler Fiorenza. South Bend: Notre Dame, 1976.

Alfaric, Prosper. “Les Écritures Manichéennes: Chapitre Deuxième: Les Écritures Chrétiennes.” RHR 78 (1918): 63–97.

Allberry, C. R. C. A Manichean Psalm-Book. Pt. 2. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1938.

Altaner, B. “Augustinus Und Die Neutestamentlichen Apokryphen, Sibyllinen Und Sextussprüche.” AnBoll 67 (1949): 236–48.

Amann, E. “Apocryphes Du N. T.” Page col. 513–33 in Dictionnaire de La Bible, Supplements. Vol. 1. Paris, 1928.

Bardsley, H. J. “The Derivation of the Acta from Early Acts of Peter.” JTS 16.64 (1915): 495–509.

Bauer, Walter. Das Leben Jesu Im Zeitalter Der Neutestamentlichen Apokryphen. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1909.

Biggs, Frederick M. Sources of Anglo-Saxon Literary Culture. Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 2007.

Blumenthal, M. Formen Und Motive in Den Apokryphen Apostelakten. Vol. 1. TUGAL 48. Leipzig: J.C. Hinrichs, 1933.

Bovon, François. “La Vie Des Apôtres: Traditions Bibliques et Narrations Apocryphes.” Pages 141–58 in Les Actes Apocryphes Des Apôtres Des Apôtres. Edited by François Bovon. Genève: Editions Labor et Fides, 1981.

———. Les Actes Apocryphes des Apôtres: christianisme et monde païen. Publications de la Faculté de théologie de l’Université de Genève no 4. Genève: Editions Labor et Fides, 1981.

———. “The Synoptic Gospels and the Noncanonical Acts of the Apostles.” HTR 81.1 (1988): 19–36.

———. “Réception Apocryphe de L’ Évangile de Luc et Lecture Orthodoxe Des Actes Apocryphes Des Apôtres.” Apocrypha 8 (1997): 137–46.

Bremmer, Jan N. “The Five Major Apocryphal Acts: Authors, Place, Time and Readership.” Pages 149–70 in The Apocryphal Acts of Thomas. Edited by Jan N. Bremmer. Studies on Early Christian Apocrypha 6. Leuven: Peeters, 2001.

Burkitt, Francis Crawford. Early Eastern Christianity. London: J. Murray, 1904.

———. “The Christian Church in the East.” Edited by J.B. Bury. The Cambridge Ancient History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1939.

Burrus, Virginia. Chastity as Autonomy: Women in the Stories of the Apocryphal Acts. Vol. 23. Lewiston and Queenston: Edwin Mellen Press, 1987.

Cartlidge, David R. “Transfigurations of Metamorphosis Traditions in the Acts of John, Thomas, and Peter.” Semeia 38 (1986): 53–66.

Cartlidge, David R., and J. K. Elliott. Art and Christian Apocrypha. London: Routledge, 2001.

Centore, Giuseppe. “Lo Gnosticismo E Il Canto Dell Perla.” Studi Storici E Religiosi 5.2 (1996): 153–76.

Colpe, C. Die Religionsceschichtliche Schule: Darstellung Und Kritik Ihres Bildes Vom Gnostischen Erlösermythos. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1961.

Czachesz, István. Commission Narratives: A Comparative Study of the Canonical and Apocryphal Acts. Leuven: Peeters, 2007.

Davies, Stevan L. “The Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles: An Introduction.” CBQ 71.3 (2009): 649–50.

Davies, Stevan L. The Revolt of the Widows: The Social World of the Apocryphal Acts. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1980.

Desreumaux, Alain. “Les apocryphes et les milieux monastiques syriaques.” Pages 129–34 in Le monachisme syriaque: aux premiers siècles de l’Eglise, IIe-début VIIe siècle. Antélias, Liban: Editions du CERP, 1998.

Duchesne, L. “Les Anciens Recueils Des Légendes Apostoliques.” Pages 67–79 in Compte Rendu Du Troisième Congrès Scientifique International Des Catholiques Tenu À Bruxelles Du 3 Au 8 Septembre 1894 … Vol. 5. Bruxelles: Société belge de librairie, 1895.

Elliott, Alison Goddard. Roads to Paradise: Reading the Lives of the Early Saints. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 1987.

Elliott, James Keith. “The Apocryphal Acts.” ExpT 105 (1993): 71–77.

———. “The Influence of the Apocrypha on Manuscripts of the New Testament.” Apocrypha 8 (1997): 265–72.

———. “The Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles in Intertextual Perspectives.” ExpT 111.7 (2000): 236–37.

Findlay, Adam Fyfe. Byways in Early Christian Literature; Studies in the Uncanonical Gospels and Acts … Kerr Lectures 1920–1921. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1923.

Gallagher, Eugene V. “Conversion and Salvation in the Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles.” SecCent 8 (1991): 13–29.

Gregory, Andrew F., Tobias Nicklas, C. M. Tuckett, and Jozef Verheyden, eds. The Oxford Handbook of Early Christian Apocrypha. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016.

Hamman, A. “Sitz Im Leben Des Actes Apocryphes Du Nouveau Testament.” Pages 62–69 in Studia Patristica VIII. TUGAL 93. Berlin, 1966.

Hertling, Ludwig. “Literarisches Zu Den Apokryphen Apostelakten.” ZKT 49.2 (1925): 219–43.

Hopkins, Keith. A World Full of Gods: The Strange Triumph of Christianity. New York: Free Press, 2000.

Hunt, Hannah. Clothed in the Body: Asceticism, the Body and the Spiritual in the Late Antique Era. Farnham, Surrey, England and Burlington, VT: Routledge, 2012.

Jones, F Stanley. “Principal Orientations on the Relations between the Apocryphal Acts (Acts of Paul and Acts of John; Acts of Peter and Acts of John).” SBLSP 32 (1993): 485–505.

Jordan, Hermann. Geschichte Der Altchristlichen Literatur. Leipzig: Quelle & Meyer, 1911.

Junod, Eric. “Origène, Eusèbe et la tradition sur la répartition des champs de mission des apôtres (Eusèbe, HE III 1,1-3).” Les Actes apocryphes des apôtres: christianisme et monde païen. Edited by François Bovon. Genève: Labor et Fides, 1981.

———. “Créations Romanesque et Traditions Ecclésiastiques Dans Les Actes Apocryphes Des Apôtres.” Aug 23 (1983): 271–85.

Kaestli, Jean-Daniel. “Les scènes d’attribution des champs de mission et de départ de l’apôtre dans les Actes apocryphes.” Pages 249–64 in Les Actes apocryphes des apôtres: christianisme et monde païen. Edited by François Bovon. Genève: Labor et Fides, 1981.

———. “Fiction Littéraire et Réalité Sociale: Que Peut-on Savoir de La Place Des Femmes Dans Le Milieu de Production Des Actes Apocryphes Des Apôtre?” Apocrypha 1 (1990): 279–302.

Kampen, Lieuwe van. Apostelverhalen: Doel En Compositie van de Oudste Apokriefe Handelingen Der Aposteln. Sliedrecht: Merweboek, 1990.

Kerenyi, Karl. Die Griechisch-Orientalische Romanliteratur in Religionsgeschichtlicher Beleuchtung. Tübingen: Mohr, 1927.

Klauck, Hans-Josef. “Himmlisches Haus Und Irdische Bleibe: Eschatologische Metaphorik in Antike Und Christentum.” NTS 50.1 (2004): 5–35.

———. The Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles: An Introduction. Translated by Brian McNeil. Waco: Baylor University Press, 2008. English trans. of Apokryphe Apostelakten. Stuttgart: Katholisches Bibelwerk, 2005.

Kraemer, Ross S. “The Conversion of Women to Ascetic Forms of Christianity.” Signs 6.2 (1980): 298–307.

Kroll, Josef. Gott und hölle, der mythos vom descensuskampfe. Studien der Bibliothek Warburg … XX. Leipzig: B. G. Teubner, 1932.

Larsson, Kristian. “Intertextual Density, Quantifying Imitation.” JBL 133.2 (2014): 309–31.

Leloir, Louis. Écrits Apocryphes Sur Les Apôtres: Traduction de L’édition Arménienne de Venise. Vol. 2: Philippe, Barthélemy, Thomas, Matthieu, Jacques Frère du Seigneur, Thaddée, Simon, Listes d’apôtres. Turnhout: Brepols, 1992.

Lemm, Oscar von. “Koptische Apokryphe Apostelacten.” Bulletin de l’Academie Imperiale Des Sciences de St. Petersbourg 1 [33].4 (1890): 509–81.

Levine, Amy-Jill and Maria Mayo Robbins. A Feminist Companion to the New Testament Apocrypha. Feminist Companion to the New Testament and Early Christian Writings 11.Cleveland: Pilgrim Press. 2006.

MacDonald, Dennis Ronald. “Which Came First? Intertextual Relationships Among the Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles.” Semeia 80 (1997): 11–41.

Macke, Karl. “Syrische Lieder Gnostischen Ursprungs.” Tübinger Theologische Quartalschrift 56 (1874): 1–70.

Marx, Friedrich. Filastrius, Diversarum Hereseon Liber. CSEL 38. Prague – Vienna – Leipzig: Academiae Litterarum Caesareae, 1889.

McNamara, Martin. The Apocrypha in the Irish Church. Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 1975.

Peeters, Paul. “Traductions et Traducteurs Dans L’hagiographie Orientale À L’époque Byzantine.” AnBoll 40 (1922): 241–98.

Perkins, Judith. “This World or Another? The Intertextuality of the Greek Romances, the Apocryphal Acts and Apuleius’ Metamorphoses.” Semeia 80 (1997): 247–60.

Perry, Ben Edwin. The Ancient Romances: A Literary-Historical Account of Their Origins. University of California Press, 1967.

Pervo, Richard I. Profit with Delight: The Literary Genre of the Acts of the Apostles. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1987.

———. “Early Christian Fiction.” Greek Fiction. The Greek Novel in Context. Edited by J. R. Morgan and R. Stoneman. London, New York: Routledge, 1994.

Photius. The Library of Photius. Translated by John Henry Freese. Translations of Christian literature I: Greek Texts. London: SPCK and New York: Macmillan, 1920.

Piontek, Ferdinand. Die Katholische Kirche Und Die Häretischen Apostelgeschichten Bis Zum Ausgange Des 6. Jahrhunderts: Ein Beitrag Zur Literaturgeschichte. Breslau: R. Nischkowsky, 1907.

Platner, J. W. “The Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles.” Edited by Carl Schmidt. AmJT 8.3 (1904): 592–96.

Plümacher, Eckhard. “Apokryphe Apostelakten.” Pauly Wissowa Supplement, 1978.

———. “Apokryphe Apostelakten.” Col. 11–70 in Real-Encyclopädie Der Klassischen Altertumswissenschaft. Supplementbände 15, 1978.

Powell, Kathryn, and D. G. Scragg. Apocryphal Texts and Traditions in Anglo-Saxon England. Vol. 2. Publications of the Manchester Centre for Anglo-Saxon Studies. Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, 2003.

Reardon, Bryan P. Courants littéraires grecs: des IIe et IIIe siècles après J.-C. Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1971.

Reitzenstein, Richard. Hellenistische Wundererzählungen. Leipzig: Teubner, 1906.

———. Himmelswanderung und drachenkampf in der alchemistischen und frühchristlichen literatur. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1916.

———. Historia Monachorum Und Historia Lausiaca. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1916.

———. Die Göttin Psyche. Heidelberg: Sitzungberichte der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1917.

———. Das Iranische Erlösungsmysterium; Religionsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen. Bonn a. Rh.: A. Marcus & E. Weber, 1921.

———. “Iranischer Erlösungsglaube.” ZNW 20 (1921): 1–23.

———. “Gedanken Zur Entwicklung Des Erlöserglaubens.” Historische Zeitschrift 126 (1922): 1–57.

Rostalski, Friedrich. Sprachliches zu den apokryphen Apostelgeschichten. 2 vols. Rölle, 1909–1911.

Sandnes, Karl Olav. “Seal and Baptism in Early Christianity.” Ablution, Initiation, and Baptism: Late Antiquity, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity = Waschungen, Initiation Und Taufe: Spätantike, Frühes Judentum Und Frühes Christentum. Edited by David Hellholm. BZNW 176. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2011.

Schenke, Hans-Martin. Der Gott “Mensch” in der Gnosis: ein religionsgeschichtlicher Beitrag zur Diskussion über die paulinische Anschauung von der Kirche als Leib Christi. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1962.

Schermann, Theodor. Propheten- Und Apostellegenden, Nebst Jüngerkatalogen Des Dorotheus Und Verwandter Texte. Bearbeitet Von D.T. Schermann. Leipzig: Hinrichs’sche Buchhandlung, 1907.

Schmidt, Karl Ludwig. Kanonische und apokryphe Evangelien und Apostelgeschichten. Basel: Majer, 1944.

Schneemelcher, Wilhelm. Gesammelte Aufsätze zum Neuen Testament und zur Patristik. Thessaloniki: Patriarchal Institute for Patristic Studies, 1974.

Siegert, Folker. “Analyses Rhétoriques et Stylistiques Portant Sur Les Actes de Jean et Les Actes de Thomas.” Apocrypha 8 (1997): 231–50.

Skeat, Walter W., ed. Aelfric’s Lives of Saints: Being a Set of Sermons on Saints’ Days Formerly Observed by the English Church. Early English Text Society. Original series, 76, 82, 94, 114 76, 82, NaN, 114. London and New York: N. Trübner & Co., 1881.

Söder, Rosa. Die Apokryphen Apostelgeschichten Und Die Romanhafte Literatur Der Antike. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1932.

Solevåg, Anna Rebecca. “A Feminist Companion to the New Testament Apocrypha.” Theology and Sexuality 18.1 (2012): 106–8.

Spittler, Janet E. Animals in the Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles. WUNT 2 247. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2008.

———. “Christianity at the Edges: Representations of the Ends of the Earth in the Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles.” Pages 353–77 in The Rise and Expansion of Christianity in the First Three Centuries of the Common Era. Edited by Clare K. Rothschild and Jens Schröter. WUNT 301. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2013), 353–77.

Sturhahn, C. L. Die Christologie Der Ältesten Apokryphen Apostelakten. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1952.

Uytfanghe, M. Van. “Encratisme En Verborgen Erotiek in de Apocriefe ‘Apostelromans.’ Omtrent de Christelijke Problematisering van de Sexualiteit.” Handelingen van de Koninklijke Zuidnederlandse Maatschappij voor Taal-en Letterkunde en Geschiedenis 45 (1991): 175–94.

Weigandt, Peter. “Der Doketismus Im Urchristentum Und in Der Theologischen Entwicklung Des Zweiten Jahrhunderts.” 2 vols. PhD diss: Ruprecht-Karls-Universität-Heidelberg, 1961.

Weis-Liebersdorf, Johannes Evangelista. Christus- Und apostelbilder. Einfluss Der Apokryphen Auf Die Ältesten Kunsttypen. Freiburg: Herdersche Verlagshandlung, 1902.

Widengren, Geo. “Der Iranische Hintergrund Der Gnosis.” ZRGG 4.2 (1952): 97–114.

———. “Stand Und Aufgaben Der Iranischen Religionsgeschichte.” Numen 1.1 (1954): 16–83.

———. The Ascension of the Apostle and the Heavenly Book: King and Saviour III. Årsskrift. Universitet Uppsala 7. Uppsala: Lundequistska Bokhandeln, 1950.

Winkler, Gabriele. “Weitere Beobachtungen Zur Frühen Epiklese (Den Doxologien Und Dem Sanctus). Über Die Bedeutung Der Apokryphen Für Die Erforschung Der Entwicklung Der Riten.” OrChr 80 (1996): 177–200.

3.5.2 Acts of Thomas

Abouzayd, S. “The Acts of Thomas and the Unity of the Dualistic World in the Syrian Orient.” ARAM 1 (1989): 217–52.

Adamik, Tamás. “The Serpent in the Acts of Thomas.” Pages 115–24 in The Apocryphal Acts of Thomas. Edited by Jan N. Bremmer. Studies in Early Christian Apocrypha 6. Leuven: Peeters, 2001.

Attridge, Harold W. “The Original Language of the Acts of Thomas.” Pages 241–50 in Of Scribes and Scrolls: Studies on the Hebrew Bible, Intertestamental Judaism, and Christian Origins Presented to John Strugnell on the Occasion of His Sixtieth Birthday. Edited by Harold W Attridge, John J. Collins, and T.H. Tobin. Lanham, Md: Univ Press of America, 1990.

———. “Paul and the Domestication of Thomas.” Pages 218–31 in Theology and Ethics in Paul and His Interpreters. Edited by Eugene H. Lovering and Jerry L. Sumney. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1996.

———. “Intertextuality in the Acts of Thomas.” Semeia 80 (1997): 87–124.

Bevan, A. The Hymn of the Soul Contained in the Syriac Acts of St. Thomas. TS 5. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1897.

Beyer, Klaus. “Das Syrische Perlenied: Ein Erlösungsmythos Als Märchengedicht.” ZDMG 140 (1990): 234–59.

Blond, Georges. “L’encratisme Dans Les Actes Apocryphes de Thomas.” Recherches et Travaux 1.2 (1946): 5–25.

Bolyki, János. “Human Nature and Character as Moving Factors of Plot in the Acts of Thomas.” Pages 91–100 in The Apocryphal Acts of Thomas. Edited by Jan N. Bremmer. Studies on Early Christian Apocrypha 6. Leuven: Peeters, 2001.

Bonnet, Maximilian. “Actes de Saint Thomas, Apôtre: Le Poème de L’âme, Version Grecque Remaniée Par Nicetas de Thessalonique.” AnBoll 20 (1901): 159–64.

Boone, Eric. “L’onction Pré-Baptismale: Sens et Origine. Un Exemple Dans Les Actes de Thomas.” Studia Patristica 30 (1997): 291–95.

Bornkamm, Günther. Mythos Und Legende in Den Apokryphen Thomas-Akten. FRLANT 31. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1933.

Bosch, Lourens P. van den. “India and the Apostolate of St. Thomas.” Pages 125–48 in The Apocryphal Acts of Thomas. Edited by Jan N. Bremmer. Studies on Early Christian Apocrypha 6. Leuven: Peeters, 2001.

Bousset, Wilhelm. “Die Himmelsreise Der Seele.” ARG 4 (1901): 136–69, 229–73.

———. “Manichäisches in Den Thomasakten.” ZNW 18 (1917): 1–39.

Bremmer, Jan N. “Bibliography of the Acts of Thomas.” Pages 171–75 in The Apocryphal Acts of Thomas. Edited by Jan N. Bremmer. Studies on Early Christian Apocrypha 6. Leuven: Peeters, 2001.

———. “The Acts of Thomas: Place, Date and Women.” Pages 74–90 in The Apocryphal Acts of Thomas. Edited by Jan. N. Bremmer. Studies on Early Christian Apocrypha 6. Leuven: Peeters, 2001.

———, ed. The Apocryphal Acts of Thomas. Studies on Early Christian Apocrypha 6. Leuven: Peeters, 2001.

———. “The Five Major Apocryphal Acts: Authors, Place, Time and Readership.” Pages 149–70 in The Apocryphal Acts of Thomas. Edited by Jan N. Bremmer. Studies on Early Christian Apocrypha 6. Leuven: Peeters, 2001.

Burch, Vacher. “A Commentary on the ‘Syriac Hymn of the Soul.’” JTS 19.74/75 (1918): 145–61.

Burkitt, Francis Crawford. “Another Indication of the Syriac Origin of the Acts of Thomas.” JTS 3 (1902): 94–95.

———. “Review of E. Preuschen, Zwei Gnostische Hymnen.” Theologisch Tijdschrift 39 (1905): 270–82.

———. “Sarbôg, Shuruppak.” JTS 4.13 (1902): 125–27.

———. The Hymn of Bardaisan Rendered into English. London: Edward Arnold, Essex House, 1899.

———. “The Hymn of the Soul.” The Quest 5.2 (1914): 617–28.

———. “The Name Habban in the Acts of Thomas.” JTS 2 (1901): 429.

———. “The Original Language of the Acts of Judas Thomas.” JTS 1 [2] (1900): 280–90.

Burns, Dylan M. “‘The Garment Poured Its Entire Self over Me’: Christian Baptismal Traditions and the Origins of the Hymn of the Pearl.” Pages 261–73 in Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World: Essays in Honour of John D. Turner. Edited by John Douglas. Turner, Kevin. Corrigan, and Tuomas. Rasimus. Nag Hammadi and Manichaean Studies 82. Leiden: Brill, 2013.

Burrus, Virginia, and Karen Jo Torjesen. “The Story of Mygdonia and Tertia from the Acts of Thomas.” Ascetic Behavior in Greco-Roman Antiquity: A Sourcebook. Edited by Vincent Wimbush. SAC. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1990.

Bussagli, Mario. “The Apostle St. Thomas and India.” East and West 3.2 (1952): 88–94.

Cartlidge, David R. “Transfigurations of Metamorphosis Traditions in the Acts of John, Thomas, and Peter.” Semeia 38 (1986): 53–66.

Casiday, Augustine. “Royal Virgins: Aldhelm of Malmesbury’s Use of the Passio Sancti Thomae.” Pages 301–306 in Studia Patristica Vol. XXXIX – Historica, Biblica, Ascetica et Hagiographica. Edited by Frances Young, Mark Edwards, and Paul Parvis. Leuven: Peeters, 2006.

Centore, Giuseppe. “Lo Gnosticismo E Il Canto Dell Perla.” Studi Storici E Religiosi 5.2 (1996): 153–76.

Colless, Brian E. “The Letter to the Hebrews and the Song of the Pearl.” Abr-Nahrain 25 (1987): 40–55.

Connolly, R. H. “A Negative Golden Rule in the Syriac Acts of Thomas.” JTS 36.144 (1935): 353–56.

———. “The Original Language of the Syriac Acts of Thomas.” JTS 8 (1907): 249–61.

Conybeare, Frederick C. “The Idea of Sleep in the ‘Hymn of the Soul.’” JTS 6.24 (1905): 609–10.

Conzelmann, Hans. “Zu Mythos, Mythologie Und Formgeschichte, Geprüft an Der Dritten Praxis Der Thomas-Akten.” ZNW 67.1–2 (1976): 111–22.

Cosgrove, Charles H. “Singing Thomas: Anatomy of a Sympotic Scene in Acts of Thomas.” VC 69.3 (2015): 256–75.

Culianu, I. “Erzählung Und Mythos Im ‘Lied von Der Perle.’” Kairos 21 (1979): 60–71.

Czachesz, István. “The Bride of the Demon. Narrative Strategies of Self-Definition in the Acts of Thomas.” Pages 36–52 in The Apocryphal Acts of Thomas. Edited by Jan N. Bremmer. Studies on Early Christian Apocrypha 6. Leuven: Peeters, 2001.

———. Commission Narratives: A Comparative Study of the Canonical and Apocryphal Acts. Leuven: Peeters, 2007.

———. “Speaking Asses in the Acts of Thomas: An Intertextual and Cognitive Perspective.” Pages 275–85 in The Prestige of the Pagan Prophet Balaam in Judaism, Early Christianity and Islam. Edited by George H. van Kooten and Jacques van Ruiten. TBN 11. Leiden/Boston: Brill, 2008.

Delaunay, Jacques-Amaury. “Rite et Symbolique En Acta Thomae Vers. Syr. I, 2a et Ss.” Pages 11–34 in Mémorial Jean de Menasce. Edited by Philippe Gignoux and Ahmad Tafazzoli. Fondation culturelle iranienne 185. Louvain: Imprimerie orientalisme, 1974.

Devos, Paul. “Le Miracle Posthume de Saint Thomas L’apôtre.” AnBoll 66 (1948): 231–75.

———. “Actes de Thomas et Actes de Paul.” AnBoll 69 (1951): 119–30.

Dihle, Albrecht. “Neues Zur Thomas-Tradition.” JAC 6 (1963): 54–70.

Doerfler, Maria, Emanuel Fiano, and Kyle Smith. “When Judas Thomas the Apostle Prays: Intercessory Prayer in Early Syriac Literature.” Pages 277–94 in Syriac encounters: papers from the sixth North American Syriac Symposium, Duke University, 26-29 June 2011. Eastern Christian Studies 20. Leuven: Peeters, 2015.

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