3 Corinthians

Epistulae mutuae Corinthiorum et Pauli

Standard abbreviation: 3 Cor.

Other titles: Third Corinthians, the Apocryphal Correspondence between Paul and the Corinthians

Clavis numbers: CANT 211.IV

Related literature: Acts of Paul, Epistle to the Laodiceans, Epistles of Paul and Seneca

Category: Epistles

Compiled by Gregory Peter Fewster, University of Toronto (greg.fewster@mail.utoronto.ca)

Citing this resource (using Chicago Manual of Style): Fewster, Gregory P.  “3 Corinthians.” e-Clavis: Christian Apocrypha. Accessed DAY MONTH YEAR. http://www.nasscal.com/e-clavis-christian-apocrypha/3-corinthians/.

Posted January 2017

1. SUMMARY

3 Corinthians is an apocryphal correspondence between some presbyters in Corinth and Paul. Its manuscript history witnesses to four distinct sections of the correspondence, two of which are properly letters and the other two provide narrative framing for the correspondence. The earliest manuscript is also (with one exception) the most recently discovered. It is written in Greek and was bound with a number of other early Christian texts in a fourth-century papyrus codex purchased by Martin Bodmer. The Bodmer manuscript contains only the two letters, the first purporting to be a letter written by Stephanus along with the presbyters in Corinth. Stephanus and the presbyters invite Paul to visit them or send a letter in order to respond to the deviant views being spread by two visitors to Corinth: Simon and Cleobius. The letter summarizes those views, which concern the use of the Prophets, the nature of God, the denial of the resurrection of the flesh, the creation of humanity, the incarnation of Christ and his birth from Mary, and the possession of the earth by angels. The second section consists of a letter of response from Paul, in which he systematically addresses these concerns and refutes the positions of Simon and Cleobius. Prior to the discovery of the Bodmer codex 3 Corinthians was thought to belong to the Acts of Paul, as it is incorporated into the Philippian episode in the sixth-century papyrus P. Heid. inv. Kop. 300+301. This version witnesses to the most extensive version of 3 Corinthians, including a brief narrative introduction detailing the Corinthians’ motivation for sending their initial letter as well as a narrative interlude detailing the sending of the Corinthians’ letter to Paul followed by Paul’s initial impressions of the letter. Both before and after the discovery of the Coptic Acts of Paul, 3 Corinthians had been found in five medieval Latin biblical manuscripts that variously contain portions of both letters and the narrative interlude. However, it is the Armenian tradition that reflects the most extensive usage of 3 Corinthians. Numerous Armenian bibles have included 3 Corinthians – sometimes viewed as a canonical text – with a somewhat more expanded text than the Greek and some Latin versions. Meanwhile, there is indirect evidence of usage of 3 Corinthians by Syrian Christians, including citations in Aphrahat’s Demonstrations and commentaries on 3 Corinthians and the Diatessaron by Ephrem. The latter is extant only in Armenian, suggesting a Syrian influence on the Armenian reception of 3 Corinthians. In fact, it was an Armenian manuscript that facilitated awareness of 3 Corinthians by European scholars in the seventeenth century, initiating a steady stream of secondary literature that kept up with the additional manuscript discoveries.

Named historical figures and characters: Paul (apostle), Simon (Magus?), Cleobus, Stephanus, Daphnus, Theophilus, Eubolus, Xenon.

Geographical locations: Philippi, Corinth.

2. RESOURCES

Acta Pauli. Blog administered by Andrew A. Fulford, Annette Merz, Jeremy W. Barrier, and Peter W. Dunn.

3. BIBLIOGRAPHY

3.1 Manuscripts and Editions

3.1.1 Armenian

S     Manuscript owned by one Mr. Gilbert North

Editions:

Wilkins, David. “Deux lettre armeniennes, une de St. Paul aux Corinthiens, et une autre des Corinthiens à St. Paul, avec une dissertation critique d’un inconnu sur ce mêmes lettres.” In Histoire Critique de la République des Lettres, Tant Ancienne Que Moderne. Tome X. Edited by S. Masson. Amsterdam: Jaques Desbordes, 1715, 150–58.

Works claiming to have seen the manuscript:

Gregory, John. Notes and Observations upon Some Passages of Scripture. 2nd ed. London: Richard Roiston, 1650, 2*.

Toland, John. A Collection of Several Pieces of John Toland, Now Publish’d from His Original Manuscripts: With Some Memoirs of His Life and Writings. Volume I. London, 1726, 377.

H     Manuscript obtained by one Mr. Roland Sherman at the behest of William Whiston

Edition (first done by W. Whiston 1728 in Latin, see below):

Whiston, W. and Whiston, G., ed. “Epistolae duae Armeniacae.” In Mosis Chorenensis Historiae Armeniacae. Libri III, 371–84. London, 1736. Updated and expanded in Carpzov, Johann Benedict. Epistolae duae Apocryphae altera Corinthiorum ad Paulum Apost. altera Paulli Apost. ad Corinthios. Lipsiae: Apud Ulric. Christian. Saalbachium, 1776.

Editions of Armenian text:

Aucher, P. Paschal. A Grammar Armenian and English. Venice: Armenian Press of St. Lazarus, 1832, 144–61.

Hovhanessian, Vahan, Third Corinthians: Reclaiming Paul for Christian Orthodoxy. StBibLit 18. New York: Peter Lang, 2000, 153–56 (transcription).

Vetter, Paul. Der apokryphe dritte Korintbrief. Wien: Mechitharistenbuchdruckerei, 1894, 41–52.

Zohrapian, Hovhannes, ed, Austuatsashunch’ Matean Hin ew Nor Ktakaranats (Venice, 1805), Appendix 1. Facsimile edition: Claude Cox, ed. Classical Armenian Bible: The Zohrab Bible. Edited by Dr. H. Zohrabian. Delmar, NY: Caravan Books, 1984, 25–27.

3.1.2 Coptic

P. Heid. Heidelberg, Universitätsbibliothek, P. Heid. Inv. Kopt. 300+301 (6th cent.)

Editio princeps:

Schmidt, Carl. Acta Pauli: Übersetzung, Untersuchungen und Koptischer Texte. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs, 1905, 46–51.

Reprinted in:

Schmidt, Carl. Acta Pauli: Aus der heidelberger koptischen Payrushandschrift Nr. 1. Hildesheim: Georg Olms Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1965, 40*–44* (plates 46–51).

3.1.3 Greek

Cologny, Bodmer Library, Bodmer Miscellaneous Codex, P. Bodmer X (3rd cent.)

Editio princeps:

Testuz, Michel. Papyrus Bodmer X-XII: Correspondance apocryphe des Corinthiens et de l’apôtre Paul; Onzième Ode de Salomon; XII: Fragment d’un Hymne liturgique. Manuscrit du IIIe siècle. Cologny-Geneva: Bibliothèque Bodmer, 1959, 30–44.

Reproduced in:

Hovhanessian, Vahan. Third Corinthians: Reclaiming Paul for Christian Orthodoxy. StBibLit 18. New York: Peter Lang, 2000, 226–29.

Johnston, Steve. “La Correspondance apocryphe entre Paul et les Corinthiens: un pseudépigraphe paulinien au service de la polémique anti-gnostique de la fin du IIe siècle.” In Colloque international “L’Évangile selon Thomas et les textes de Nag Hammadi,” edited by Louis Painchaud and Paul-Hubert Poirier. Bibliothèque de Copte Nag Hammadi 8. Québec: Presses Université Laval, 2007, 226–29.

Wayment, Thomas A. The Text of the New Testament Apocrypha (100–400 CE). New York: T&T Clark, 2013, 12–17 (new transcription and edition), 215–22 (plates).

3.1.4 Latin

M (L1)     Milan, Biblioteca Ambrosiana, Cod. Ambrose E 53 inf., fols. 169r–169v (10th cent.)

Editio princeps:

Carrière, A., and S. Berger. La correspondance apocryphe de saint Paul et des Corinthiens: ancienne version latine et traduction du texte arménien. Paris: Fischbacher, 1891, 15–18.

——— . “La correspondance apocryphe de Saint Paul et les Corinthiens: Ancienne version latine et traduction du texte armenien.” RTP 24 (1891): 333–51 (see pp. 343–45).

Reproduced in:

Vetter, Paul. Der apokryphe dritte Korintbrief. Wien: Mechitharistenbuchdruckerei, 1894, 58–64.

L (L2)     Laon, Bibliothek municipale, 45 (13th cent.)

Editio princeps:

Bratke, E. “Ein zweiter lateinischer Text des apokryphen Briefwechsels zwischen dem Apostel Paulus und den Korinthern.” Theologische Literaturzeitung 17 (1892): 585–88.

Reproduced in:

Vetter, Paul. Der apokryphe dritte Korintbrief. Wien: Mechitharistenbuchdruckerei, 1894, 64–69.

Additional editions:

Harnack, Adolf von. Apocrypha IV: Die apocryphen Briefe des Paulus an die Laodicener und Korinther. Kleine Texte für Vorlesungen und Übungen 12. Bonn: A. Marcus und H Weber’s Verlag, 1905, 6–23 (8–22).

Harnack, Adolf von. “Untersuchungen über den apocryphen Briefwechsel der Korinther mit dem Apostel Paulus.” Sitzungsberichte der Koniglich preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Berlin, 1905, 3–35 (7–15).

B     Berlin, Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin – Preußischer Kulturbesitz, Ham. 84, fol. 241r–241v (13th cent.)

Editio princeps:

Boese, Helmut. “Über eine bisher unbekannte Handschrift des Briefwechsels zwischen Paulus und den Korinthern.” ZNW 44, no. 1 (1953): 66–76.

P     Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France,  lat. 13069 + lat. 5288

Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, lat. 13069, fol. 1 (17th/18th cent.)

Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France,  lat. 5288, fols. 32r–33r (10th/11th cent.)

Editio princeps:

De Bruyne, D. “Un nouveau manuscrit de la troisième lettre de Saint Paul aux Corinthiens.” RBén 25 (1908): 431–34.

B.N. lat. 13069 fol. 1 first mentioned in:

Auger, Marie-Louise. “La Bibliothèque  de Saint-Bénigne de Dijon au XVIIe siècle: Le témoignage de dom Hugue Lanthenas.” Scriptorium 39.2 (1985): 234–64 (240–41).

Full edition:

Johnston, Steve. “Les témoins Latins de la correspondance apocryphe entre Paul et les Corinthiens conservés à La Bibliothèque Nationale de France.” Apocrypha 18 (2007): 139–66 (150–55). Photographs of MS, pp. 160–64.

Z     Zürich, Zentralbibliotheque, Car. C. 14 (10th cent.)

Editio Princeps:

De Bruyne, D. “Un quatrième manuscript Latin de la correspondence apocryphe de Saint Paul avec les Corinthiens.” RBén 45 (1933): 189–95.

Additional editions:

Rordorf, Willy. “Hérésie et orthodoxie selon la correspondance apocryphe entre les Corinthiens et l’Apôtre Paul.” Cahiers de La Revue de Théologie et de Philosophie 17 (1993): 60–63 (edition of M and P).

Vouaux, Léon. Les Actes de Paul et ses lettres apocryphes: Introduction, Textes, Traduction et Commentaire. Les Apocryphes du Neuveau Testament. Paris: Librairie Letouzby et Anè, 1913, 248–74 (full edition of Latin tradition corrected with Armenian and Coptic).

 

3.1.5 Ancient Commentaries

There is secondary evidence for 3 Corinthians in Ephrem’s Commentary on 3 Corinthians and Commentary on the Diatessaron and in citations found in Aphrahat’s Demonstrations.

Ephrem

Critical editions:

Patribus Mekitharistis, Srboyn Ep’remi, Matenagrut’iwnk’. Vol. 3. Venice, 1836.

Leloir, Louis. Saint Éphrem, Commentaire de l’Évangile concordant, version arménienne. CSCO 137, 145. Louvain: Durbecq, 1953–54.

———. Saint Éphrem, Commentaire de l’Évangile concordant. Texte syriaque (Manuscript Chester Beatty 709). Chester Beatty Monographs, 8. Dublin: Hidges Figgis, 1963. Expanded and rev. ed., Leuven: Peeters, 1990.

———. Éphrem de Nisibe, Commentaire de l’Évangile concordant ou Diatessaron, traduit du syriaque et de l’arménien. SC, 121. Paris Éditions du Cerf, 1966.

Latin translation:

Patribus Mekitharistis, S. Ephraem Syri, Commentarii in Epistolas D. Pauli: nunc primum ex armenio in latinum sermonem. Venice, 1893.

German translation:

Kanajanz in Zahn, Theodor. Geschichte des Neutestamentlichen Kanons. Zweiter Band: Zweiter hälft. Erlangen: Georg Bühme, 1892, 592–611 (595–606).

Vetter, Paul. Der apokryphe Dritte Korintbrief. Wien: Mechitharistenbuchdruckerei, 1894, 70–79.

Studies:

Bundy, David. “The Pseudo-Ephremian Commentary on Third Corinthians: A Study in Exegesis and Anti-Bardaisanite Polemic.” In After Bardaisan: Studies on Continuity and Change in Syriac Christianity in Honour of Professor Han J.W. Drijvers, edited by Gerrit J. Reinink and Alexander Cornelis Klugkist. OLA 89. Louvain: Peeters, 1999.

Hovhanessian, Vahan. “The Commentary of St. Ephrem the Syrian on the Apocryphal Third Corinthians: The School of Antioch.” In The School of Antioch: Biblical Theology in the Church in Syria, 69–84, 116–18. Bible in the Christian Orthodox Tradition 6. New York: Peter Lang, 2016.

Johnston, Steve and Paul-Hubert Poirier. “Nouvelles citations chez Éphrem et Aphraate de la correspondance entre Paul et les Corinthiens.” Apocrypha 16 (2005): 137–47.

Aphrahat

Critical editions:

Wright, William, ed. The Homilies of Aphraates, the Persian Sage: Edited from Syriac Manuscripts of the Firfth and Sixth Centuries in the British Museum. Vol. 1. The Syriac Text. London: Williams and Norgate, 1869.

Parisot, D. Ioannes, ed. Aphraatis Sapientis Persae. Demonstrationes I-XXII. PS 1.1. Paris: Firmin-Didot, 1894.

———, ed. Aphraatis Sapientis Persae Demonstrationes XXIII. PS 1.2. Paris: Firmin- Didot, 1907.

French translation:

Pierre, M.-J. Aphraate le Sage Persan. Les Exposés I-X. Traduction de syriaque, introduction et notes. SC 349. Paris: Les Éditions du Cerf, 1988.

———. Aphraate le Sage Persan. Les Exposés, XI-XXIII. Traduction de syriaque, notes et index. SC 359. Paris: Les Éditions du Cerf, 1989.

English translation:

Lehto, Adam. The Demonstrations of Aphrahat, the Persian Sage. Gorgias Eastern Christianity Series, 27. Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias, 2010.

Studies:

Johnston, Steve, and Paul-Hubert Poirier. “Nouvelles citations chez Éphrem et Aphraate de la correspondance entre Paul et les Corinthiens.” Apocrypha 16 (2005): 137–47.

Walters, J. Edward. “Evidence for Citations of 3 Corinthians and Their Influence in the Demonstrations of Aphrahat.” VC 67.3 (2013): 248–62.

3.2 Modern Translations

3.2.1 Arabic

Unknown in Whiston, William. A Collection of Authentick Records Belonging to the Old and New Testament, Translated into English. Part II. London, 1728, 594–602 (likely from Armenian MS H).

3.2.2 English

From Greek:

Rist, Martin. “III Corinthians as a Pseudepigraphic Refutation of Marcionism.” Iliff Review 26.3 (1969): 49–58 (50–52).

Hovhanessian, Vahan. Third Corinthians: Reclaiming Paul for Christian Orthodoxy. StBibLit 18. New York: Peter Lang, 2000, 76–79.

White, Benjamin. Remembering Paul: Ancient and Modern Contests over the Image of the Apostle. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014, 190–93.

From Armenian:

Byron, George Gordon. “Appendix I. Translations from the Armenian.” In The Works of Lord Byron. Letters and Journals. Vol. IV. Edited by Rowland E. Prothero, 429–36. London: J. Murray, 1905 (translation of Zohrapian’s text).

__________. “Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians.” Pages 144–61 in P. Paschal Aucher, A Grammar Armenian and English. Venice: Armenian Press of St. Lazarus, 1832.

Jones, Jeremiah. A New and Full Method of Settling the Canonical Authority of the New Testament. To Which Is Subjoined A Vindication of the Former Part of St. Matthew’s Gospel. Vol. 1. Oxford: Clarendon, 1827, 130–32 (translation based on La Croze’s Latin translation of Armenian MS H).

Scharlemann, Martin H. “Third Corinthians.” CTQ 26 (1955): 518–29 (534–28) (translation based on Rinck’s German).

Whiston, William. A Collection of Authentick Records Belonging to the Old and New Testament, Translated into English. Part II. London, 1728, 595-603 (translation of Armenian MS H).

From Acts of Paul editions:

Elliott, J. Keith. The Apocryphal New Testament: A Collection of Apocryphal Christian Literature in an English Translation. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005, 380–82.

Pick, Bernhard. The Apocryphal Acts of Paul, Peter, John, Andrew and Thomas. Chicago: Open Court, 1909, 38–42.

James, M.R. The Apocryphal New Testament: Being the Apocryphal Gospels, Acts, Epistles, and Apocalypses, with Other Narratives and Translations. Oxford: Clarendon, 1975, 288–90.

Lake, Kirsopp. The Earlier Epistles of St. Paul. London: Rivingtons, 1911, 236–40 (translation based on Harnack’s edition).

Schneemelcher, Wilhelm.  “Acts of Paul.” In New Testament Apocrypha, vol. 2: Writings Relating to the Apostles; Apocalypses and Related Subjects, edited by Wilhelm Schneemelcher. Trans. Robert McL. Wilson. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 2003, 213–70 (254–56).

Pervo, Richard I. The Making of Paul: Constructions of the Apostle in Early Christianity. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2010, 96–99.

———. The Acts of Paul: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary. Eugene, OR: Cascade, 2014, 25859, 265–66.

3.2.3 French

From Greek:

Testuz, Michel. Papyrus Bodmer X-XII. Cologne: Bibliotheca Bodmeriana, 1959, 31–45.

From Armenian:

Carrière, A., and S. Berger. La correspondance apocryphe de saint Paul et des Corinthiens: ancienne version latine et traduction du texte arménien. Paris: Fischbacher, 1891, 19–23.

Carrière, A., and S. Berger. “La correspondance apocryphe de Saint Paul et les Corinthiens: Ancienne version latine et traduction du texte armenien.” RTP 24 (1891): 333–351 (347–51).

From Latin:

Johnston, Steve. “Les témoins Latins de la correspondance apocryphe entre Paul et les Corinthiens conservés à La Bibliothèque Nationale de France.” Apocrypha 18 (2007): 139–66 (156–59) (translation based on his edition of the Latin MS P).

From Acts of Paul editions:

Amiot, F. La Bible Apocryphe: Évangiles apocryphe. Paris: Librarie Arthème Fayard, 1952, 243–47.

Rordorf, Willy, with Pierre Cherix, and Rudolph Kasser. “Acte de Paul.” In Écrits apocryphes chrétiens, tome I., edited by François Bovon and Pierre Geoltrain. Collection Bibliothèque de la Pléiade 442. Paris: Gallimard, 1997, 1117–77 (1161–66).

Vouaux, Léon. Les Actes de Paul et ses Lettres Apocryphes: Introduction, Textes, Traduction et Commentaire. Les Apocryphes du Neuveau Testament. Paris: Librairie Letouzby et Anè, 1913, 249–75.

3.2.4 German

From Armenian:

Rinck, Wilhelm Friedrich. Das Sendschreiben der Korinther an den Apostel Paulus und das Dritte Sendschreiben Pauli an die Korinther. Heidelberg: C. F. Winter, 1823, 228–43.

Vetter, Paul. “Der apokryphe dritte Korintherbrief, neu Übersetzt seiner Entstehung untersucht.” TQ 72 (1890): 610–39 (615–24) (translation based on Ephrem’s text).

Vetter, Paul. Der apokryphe dritte Korintbrief. Wien: Mechitharistenbuchdruckerei, 1894, 52–57.

From Acts of Paul traditions:

Schmidt, Carl. Acta Pauli: Übersetzung, Untersuchungen und Koptischer Texte. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs, 1905, 74–82 (reprint of Acta Pauli: Aus der heidelberger koptischen Payrushandschrift Nr. 1. Hildescheim: Georg Olms Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1965, 74–82).

Schneemelcher, Wilhelm. “Paulusakten.” In Neutestamentliche Apokryphen in Deutscher Übersetzung. II. Band. Apostolisches, Apokalypsen Und Verwandtes, edited by Wilhelm. Schneemelcher and Edgar. Hennecke, 3rd ed. Tübingen: J.C.B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck), 1964, 177–220 (258–61).

 

3.2.5 Greek

Attempts at retro-translation from Armenian:

Whiston, W. and Whiston, G., ed. “Epistolae duae Armeniacae.” In Mosis Chorenensis Historiae Armeniacae. Libri III, 371–84. London, 1786.

Harnack, Adolf von. Apocrypha IV: Die apocryphen Briefe des Paulus an die Laodicener und Korinther. Kleine Texte für Vorlesungen und Übungen 12. Bonn: A. Marcus und H. Weber’s Verlag, 1905, 6–23 (9–23).

Harnack, Adolf von. “Untersuchungen über den apocryphen Briefwechsel der Korinther mit dem Apostel Paulus.” Sitzungsberichte der Koniglich preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Berlin, 1905, 3–35 (18–28).

 

3.2.6 Italian

Gregory indicates that he saw an Italian version alongside the Armenian MS S.

Gregory, John. Notes and Observations upon Some Passages of Scripture. 2nd ed. London: Richard Roiston, 1650, 2*.

From Greek:

D’Anna, Alberto. “La pseudepigrafa Corrispondenza tra Paolo e i Corinzi: il suo contesto e la sua funzione nella costruzione di un’identità dottrinale cristiana.” Annali Di Storia Dell’esegesi 20 (2003): 111–37 (111–13).

From Acts of Paul editions:

Erbetto, Mario. “Paolo.” In Gli Apocrifi Del Nuovo Testamento. Vol. II. Atti E Leggende. Genova: Marietti Editori, 1966, 241–304 (279–82).

3.2.7 Latin

David Wilkins in Fabricio, Jo. Alberto. Codicis Apocryphi Novi Testamenti, pars Tertia nunc Primum Edita. Hamburg: Benjamin Schilleri & Joh. Christoph. Kisneri, 1719, 668–70 (translation from Armenian MS S).

La Croze in Fabricio, Jo. Alberto. Codicis Apocryphi Novi Testamenti, pars Tertia nunc Primum Edita. Hamburg: Benjamin Schilleri & Joh. Christoph. Kisneri, 1719, 681–83 (translation from Armenian MS S).

La Croze in Whiston, William. A Collection of Authentick Records Belonging to the Old and New Testament, Translated into English. Part II. London, 1728, 594–602 (translation from Armenian MS H).

Negri in Whiston, William. A Collection of Authentick Records Belonging to the Old and New Testament, Translated into English. Part II. London, 1728, 595–603 (translation from Arabic translation of Armenian MS H).

Masson, S. “Deux lettre armeniennes, une de St. Paul aux Corinthiens, et une autre des Corinthiens à St. Paul, avec une dissertation critique d’un iconnu sur ce mêmes lettres.” In Histoire Critique de La République Des Lettres, Tant Ancienne Que Moderne. Tome X. Amsterdam: Jaques Desbordes, 1715, 150–58 (translation of Armenian MS S).

La Croze in Whiston, G. and Whiston, G., ed. “Epistolae duae Armeniacae.” In Mosis Chorenensis Historiae Armeniacae. Libri III, 371–84. London, 1786 (translation of Armenian MS H).

Giles, J. A. de. Codex Apocryphus Novi Testamenti: The Uncanonical Gospels and Other Writings, Referring to the First Ages of Christianity in the Original Languages. Collected Together from the Editions of Fabricus, Thilo, and Others. Part II. London: D. Nutt, 1852, 509–10 (reproduction of Fabricius).

 

3.3 General Works

Asmussen, Jes Peter. “Der apokryphe dritte Korintherbrief in der armenischen Tradition.” AcOr 35 (1973): 51–55.

Berendts, A. “Zur Christologie des apokryphen dritten Korintherbriefes.” In Abhandlungen Alexander von Öttingen, 1–28. Munich: Beck, 1898.

Bundy, David. “The Pseudo-Ephremian Commentary on Third Corinthians: A Study in Exegesis and Anti-Bardaisanite Polemic.” In After Bardaisan: Studies on Continuity and Change in Syriac Christianity in Honour of Professor Han J.W. Drijvers, edited by Gerrit J. Reinink and Alexander Cornelis Klugkist. OLA 89. Louvain: Peeters, 1999.

Calhoun, Robert Matthew. “The Resurrection of the Flesh in Third Corinthians.” Pages 235–57 in Christian Body, Christian Self. Edited by Clare K. Rothschild and Trevor W. Thompson. WUNT 284. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2011.

Carrière, A., and S. Berger. La correspondance apocryphe de saint Paul et des Corinthiens: ancienne version latine et traduction du texte arménien. Paris: Fischbacher, 1891.

Carrière, A., and S. Berger. “La correspondance apocryphe de Saint Paul et les Corinthiens: ancienne version latine et traduction du texte arménien.” RTP 24 (1891): 333–51.

Crowe, S. Peter. “Text Critical Investigation of the Armenian Version of Third Corinthians.” In Apocryphes arméniens: transmission – traduction – creation – iconographie. Actes du colloque international sur la literature apocryphe en langue arménienne (Genève, 18-20 septembre 1997), edited by Valentina Calzolari Bouvier, et al., 91–102. Lausanne: Éditions du Zèbre, 1999.

D’Anna, Alberto. “La pseudepigrafa Corrispondenza tra Paolo e i Corinzi: il suo contesto e la sua funzione nella costruzione di un’identità dottrinale cristiana.” Annali Di Storia Dell’esegesi 20 (2003): 111–37.

———. Terza lettera ai Corinzi – Pseudo-Giustino, la risurrezione. Milan: Paoline, 2009.

———. “The New Testament and the Third Epistle to the Corinthians.” In Christian Apocrypha: Receptions of the New Testament in Ancient Christian Apocrypha, edited by Jean-Michel Roessli and Tobias Nicklas, 133–48. Novum Testamentum Patristicum 26. Göttingen: Vandenhoek & Ruprecht, 2014.

Dunn, Peter W. “Testing Pauline Pseudonymity: 3 Corinthians and the Pastorals Epistles Compared.” Proceedings – Eastern Great Lakes and Midwest Bible Societies 20 (2000): 63–70.

———. “The Acts of Paul and the Pauline Legacy in the Second Century.” Dissertation, Cambridge University, 1996.

Ehrman, Bart D. Forgery and Counterforgery: The Use of Literary Deceit in Early Christianity Polemics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, 425–32.

Erbetto, Mario. “Paolo.” In Gli Apocrifi Del Nuovo Testamento. Vol. II. Atti E Leggende, 241–304. Genova: Marietti Editori, 1966.

Fewster, Gregory Peter. “Paul as Letter Writer and the Success of Pseudepigraphy: Constructing an Authorial Paul in the Apocryphal Corinthian Correspondence.” In Fakes, Forgeries, and Fictions: Writing Ancient and Modern Christian Apocrypha. Proceedings from the 2015 York University Christian Apocrypha Symposium, edited by Tony Burke. Eugene, OR: Cascade, forthcoming 2017.

Gregory, Andrew. “Non-canonical Epistles and Related Literature.” In The Oxford Handbook of Early Christian Apocrypha, edited by Andrew Gregory and Christopher Tuckett. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015, 90–114 (97–95).

Harnack, Adolf von. Apocrypha IV: Die apocryphen Briefe des Paulus an die Laodicener und Korinther. Kleine Texte für Vorlesungen und Übungen 12. Bonn: A. Marcus und H Weber’s Verlag, 1905, 6–23.

———. “Untersuchungen über den apocryphen Briefwechsel der Korinther mit dem Apostel Paulus.” Sitzungsberichte der Koniglich preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Berlin, 1905, 3–35.

Hovhanessian, Vahan. “Corinthians, Third.” In The Encyclopedia of Ancient History, edited by Roger S. Bagnall, et al. London: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012.

———. “The Commentary of St. Ephrem the Syrian on the Apocryphal Third Corinthians: The School of Antioch.” In The School of Antioch: Biblical Theology in the Church in Syria, edited by Havan Hovhanessian, 69–84, 116–18. Bible in the Christian Orthodox Tradition 6. New York: Peter Lang, 2016.

———. Third Corinthians: Reclaiming Paul for Christian Orthodoxy. StBibLit 18. New York: Peter Lang, 2000.

Johnston, Steve. “La Correspondance apocryphe entre Paul et les Corinthiens: un pseudépigraphe paulinien au service de la polémique anti-gnostique de la fin du IIe siècle.” In Colloque international “L’Évangile selon Thomas et les textes de Nag Hammadi,” edited by Louis Painchaud and Paul-Hubert Poirier, 187–230. Bibliothèque de Copte Nag Hammadi 8. Québec: Presses Université Laval, 2007.

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